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The Kuwaiti Fund loan to finance the project will be repaid in instalments over 20 years, with a five-year grace period. (Shutterstock)
06:00 GMT
The long-awaited project will help boost the two countries’ total power-generation capacity by linking the power stations in the city of Badr in Egypt, and the two Saudi cities of Medina and Tabuk.
Sudan has  no restrictions on gold exportation, meaning that investing companies can export all the gold they produce. (Shutterstock)
05:21 GMT
The Sudanese government is pulling out all the stops to facilitate procedures for gold mining investors from Qatar, UAE and Saudi Arabia.

August 23, 2016

Budgeting is a bit boring but the benefits are enormous. (Shutterstock)
16:13 GMT
All fitness regimes start with an assessment of your current health, so you should do the same for your finances.
Egypt's President Sisi and the UAE's Mohammed bin Zayed Al Nahyan during the latter's visit to Cairo in April 2016. (File photo)
13:30 GMT
The deal follows Egypt's appeal to Arabia last week to help provide financial aid in order to meet the terms of a $12B IMF fund facility.
The Education Ministry plans to introduce double shifts at 102 schools where Syrian students are enrolled, bringing the total number of schools working on two shifts to 200. (File photo)
12:30 GMT
Grants for the education sector from the UK's DFID, USAID, and the Norwegian and Swiss governments followed their commitments at the London donor conference.
The Four Seasons Hotel, Cairo. (Four Seasons)
11:30 GMT
The arrival of a Russian delegation to Egypt to inspect airport security will be followed by an International Civil Aviation Organisation inspection at the end of 2016.
Hijabi fashionista Maryam Asadullah has 100,000 followers on Instagram. (Instagram)
11:13 GMT
A new study revealed that as much as 71 per cent of UAE residents aged 18-40 are happy to take advice online before purchasing, so companies must take these online influencers seriously.
Among the GCC countries, the UAE's healthcare market is projected to reach $19.5 billion (Dh71.56 billion) by 2020.  (File photo)
10:43 GMT
The Gulf region is seeing an unprecedented demand for hospital and medical services due to an enormous increase of population, huge healthcare budgets and heavy investments in the sector.
The King Fahd Causeway linking Bahrain and Saudi Arabia. (Wajahat Mahmood/Flickr)
10:17 GMT
A 40km long bridge between Al Ahsa and Bahrain, and a 25km long bridge Al Ahsa and Qatar was first proposed in May.
'Candy Crush' continues to dominate social media network's digital playground. (File photo)
09:53 GMT
There are a gazillion games on Facebook, but only a handful are successfully battling it out for your attention.
In the UAE, the first most affected sector for spear phishing is finance, followed by oil and gas.  (Shutterstock)
08:30 GMT
A new joint venture between Etisalat and Dubai South aims to cater for the rising demand for cybersecurity amid reports that the UAE is one of the top three most targeted countries for cyber attacks.
Stari Most, a 16th-century Ottoman bridge in the city of Mostar in Bosnia and Herzegovina. (Shutterstock)
07:30 GMT
The natural beauty and low prices of Eastern Europe are proving to be a big draw for Saudi tourists, in comparison to the high costs of domestic tourism.
The first phase of the project includes 224 properties in three separate residential zones, and two five-star hotels to be run by The Jumeirah Group. (Jumeirah Group)
06:40 GMT
The Omran project spans 2.2-sq-km and will offer residential units, recreational facilities a beachfront luxury resort hotel and a boutique hotel.
Eureeca said it now has 12,000 active investors from 42 countries with an average investment of $5,900. (Shutterstock)
05:29 GMT
The equity crowdfunding platform raised $400,000 over 12 days, and attracted 44 global investors.

August 22, 2016

At the centre of robotics, drones, and 3D printing innovation in the Middle East is the UAE, with government initiatives leading the way.  (Shutterstock)
18:26 GMT
Robotics, along with drones and 3D printing, are three inter-related technologies that are rapidly decreasing in cost, advancing in sophistication, and driving innovation.
The AI program was 70 percent accurate in detecting signs of depression, which was better than previous studies looking at the 42 percent success rate of GPs diagnosing patients. (Shutterstock/tanuha2001)
17:48 GMT
Researchers at two US universities have used artificial intelligence to detect signs of depression on the social network.
Egypt has one of the highest records of car accidents in the world and a poor transportation safety history in general.  (Shutterstock)
15:54 GMT
While the death toll from car accidents has dropped, Egypt counted EGP 30.5 billion in the cost of crashes in 2015, with the 2016 projected to be even higher.
Fire engulfs more than 30 floors of the 75-floor luxury Sulafa Tower in Dubai in January 2016. (File photo)
14:38 GMT
A series of high-profile tower fires and an imminent redrafting of the UAE's Fire & Life Safety code is likely to fuel demand for locally-made, fire-resistant cladding.
Nakheel was one of the developers worst hit by Dubai's real estate crash at the turn of the decade, forcing the firm into a massive $16 billion debt restructuring. (File photo)
14:03 GMT
The Dubai developer's financial restructuring, which began in 2011, will have met its targets two years ahead of schedule with its final repayment of a $1.2B sukuk.
Shifting priorities can negatively impact your financial standing. (File photo)
13:27 GMT
Consistent commitment to long-term financial plans is a core aspect of financial discipline.
Several workers – especially those working in construction companies – have been stranded without pay in the kingdom during recent months. (File photo)
13:24 GMT
The Saudi labor ministry confirmed that the struggling construction firm expects to clear all unpaid salaries by the end of next month.
Banks and financial institutions have until the end of November 2016 to be in compliance with the terms of the circular. (File photo)
09:00 GMT
Lebanon's Central Bank has prohibited all commercial banks and financial institutions from transactions with unlicensed money dealers and money lenders.
The OMR500m mixed-use Mina Sultan Qaboos Waterfront project is close to being fully funded.   (
08:00 GMT
Omran's investments include the takeover of Oman Sail and Oman Tourism College, Marina Bander Rhowda, and a 40 percent stake in The Wave development.
70,000 barrels of crude oil have been sent down the pipeline to the Mediterranean Turkish port of Ceyhan. (File photo)
07:00 GMT
Crude oil delivery via the fiKirkuk-Yumurtalik oil pipeline had been stopped for five months due to problems between Baghdad and Erbil.
Abu Dhabi-based international retailer plans to develop a second shopping mall. (File photo)
06:00 GMT
Spread over 19 acres of land located at the national highway in Akkulam, this will be the second biggest shopping mall in the country after the LuLu Mall in Kochi.
Strategies can help overcome creative blocks at the workplace. (File Photo)
05:00 GMT
All creative individuals find their work coming less easily at some times than others. That’s when you need strategies.

August 21, 2016

The world’s leading suppliers of event technology will partake in the region’s specialist industry trade show later this year. (File Photo)
17:00 GMT
Research suggests industries such as hospitality, retail and education present ample opportunities for the AV and entertainment market.
A woman stands in line for subsidised bread. (AFP/File)
11:00 GMT
Squeezed by economic and political turmoil since the 2011 uprising that toppled Hosni Mubarak, Egyptians are preparing for a new era of austerity.
Regional countries undertaking massive renewable energy projects. UAE has emerged as a pioneer in this sector with the Masdar initiative. (AFP/File)
10:14 GMT
Solar water heater designed by expatriate offsets two tonnes of carbon emissions annually.
Thirty per cent of the $10 billion project will be financed equally by Jordan and Russia. (File photo)
10:00 GMT
Jordan is currently in talks with German, Czech, Chinese and Japanese companies among others to supply turbines and electrical systems for the power plant and things are going well.
The report estimated that the total spend on infrastructure projects related to Dubai Expo 2020 might reach up to $18 billion. (File photo)
09:00 GMT
More than 3,700 projects worth around $400 billion are currently ongoing in Dubai, UAE.
Travel insurance should be an essential on your pre-trip packing list. (Shutterstock)
08:00 GMT
Travel insurance covers more than unexpected cancellations - and the benefits are worth it!
Gulfnet is working with global partners to delete cybercrime in the Gulf. (Shutterstock)
07:00 GMT
Gulfnet is partnering with other industry leaders to provide a comprehensive cybersecurity platform for the Gulf region.
3D model printing. (Shutterstock)
06:00 GMT
3D printing is a rapidly growing technology across multiple disciplines in the Middle East.
The Galaxy Note 7 comes in 64GB capacity and three colours in the Middle East- Black Onyx, Silver Titanium and Gold Platinum. (Samsung)
05:00 GMT
The symmetry of the Note7 makes it easier to handle than the S7, and from a specs perspective, is almost identical.
Despite the remarks made by Kevin Roberts of Saatchi & Saatchi, class and age are the determining factors when it comes to turning down promotion. (Shutterstock)
05:00 GMT
Dismissing millennials as spoiled kids who need to just knuckle down to work, ignores the fact that there’s a certain logic to their choices.

August 18, 2016

There are currently eight Egyptian ports on the Red Sea used to transport goods and passengers between the two countries.  (Nautica expo)
15:05 GMT
Negotiations and feasibility studies are underway for possible implementation of the tourism project to link Maqna Port, Saudi Arabia with Dahab, Egypt by the end of this year.
Egypt is scrambling to secure some $5B in bilateral financing needed to ensure that a $12B IMF lending programme will go ahead. (AFP/File)
14:15 GMT
The $2B deposit deal was inked alongside a $16Binvestment fund during King Salman's visit in April, but was not previously announced.
Candidates started registration to run in the September 20 polls on Tuesday, and the Independent Election Commission will be receiving applications until Thursday. (AFP/File)
13:50 GMT
Candidates are using Twitter, Facebook, YouTube to reach out to voters in a more cost-effective manner.
Around 1.8 million overseas workers from the Philippines are estimated to be based in Saudi Arabia. (AFP/File)
13:28 GMT
A royal decree includes assistance measures such as medical care, support services, and administrative help to change jobs, which could benefit up to 20,000 affected Filipino workers.
The main motivation appeared to be financial gain resulting either from sales of stolen intellectual property and business intelligence, or from attacks on their victim’s banking accounts. (Shutterstock)
11:00 GMT
A wave of spear-phishing e-mails with malicious attachments hit 130 industrial and engineering sectors around the world, including the UAE.
Subsidising electricity generated from oil and gas has made potential growth in the renewable energy sector falter. (Shutterstock)
10:00 GMT
Industry players acknowledge that the rise in electricity prices are a necessary part of bridging the budget deficit, but suggested that consumers would bear the burden of increased production costs.
The Gaza Strip’s Hamas-run government continues to face a dire financial crisis that has prevented it from regularly paying the salaries of many public employees. (
07:00 GMT
The salary allocation process had begun under UN supervision, but a 'large number' of the strip’s Hamas-appointed civil servants had not been included on the list of grant beneficiaries.
Syrian refugee children in Al-Ramtha, Jordan. (Wikipedia)
06:00 GMT
Jordan reminds the international community that it has only received $55M (JD39M) out of one billion pledged by donors, and that its efforts to educate Syrian children are 'unrivalled'.
Google's headquarters in Mountain View, California. (File photo)
05:00 GMT
Fuchsia, Google's new OS, will run on smartphones, PCs, tablets, and embedded devices that include car dashes, GPS and digital watches.
Anastasia has 9 years of experience in the marketing field. (Bayt)
05:00 GMT
Jordan-based Anastasia Ivanovskaya climbed her way up from telemarketing to establish her internet marketing agency, Katra Marketing.
The finance ministry stopped reimbursing expenses for the crane 10 months earlier because it was no longer considered useful. (AFP/File)
05:00 GMT
Saudi's Finance Ministry reveals that the crane was advised to be removed from its location ten months before the tragedy.
Monthly or fixed-term savings tools can offer a timely back-up when you are faced with unforeseen financial hurdles such as job loss. (File photo)
05:00 GMT
When faced with unforeseen circumstances such as job loss, it's time to take stock of your financials

August 17, 2016

Egypt has requested $1B from the UAE as part of $2 billion financial aid promised by Abu Dhabi Crown Prince Sheikh Mohammed bin Zayed during his visit to Cairo a few months ago. (File photo)
14:09 GMT
In addition to accepting the $12B IMF loan and $3B from the World Bank, Egypt has its sights set on another $5B in aid from Arab states.
Connecting to public Wi-Fi networks allows hackers access to persons' sensitive information like banking details and account passwords. (File photo)
12:35 GMT
Confusion over the safety of public networks means that some are putting the convenience of connectivity before the security of their personal information.
Gold 24K, the purest possible, currently sells for approximately EGP 522, the new 14K sells for EGP 304.6. (Shutterstock)
12:00 GMT
The new type of gold, which came onto the market 10 days ago, is available in prices almost 22 percent cheaper than gold 18K — the once-cheapest unit of gold offered on the Egyptian market.
Search and security teams will carry out inspections inside camps and buildings to make sure there are no LPG tanks or cylinders.  (File photo)
10:00 GMT
Ahead of Hajj season, Crown Prince Mohammed bin Naif has announced a ban on the use of liquefied petroleum gas for cooking in holy cities.
The new hotel will have 230 rooms, including 27 suites.  (Times of Oman)
09:00 GMT
The iconic five-star hotel in Muscat will begin booking guests in a few weeks.
The legislation requires the State Investment Council, which manages more than $80 billion in pension assets, to identify any potential investments in companies with Israeli boycotts and to divest from them. (File photo)
08:00 GMT
New Jersey governor Chris Christie has signed legislation that prohibits state agencies from investing in pension and annuity funds of companies that engage in political boycotts of Israel.
Parliamentary speaker Abdul Aal said that Egyptian airports have implemented about 85% of Russia’s demands regarding flight safety recommendations. (AFP/File)
07:00 GMT
The delegation will inspect Hurghada, Cairo, and Sharm El-Sheikh airports in order to determine the fate of the nearly year-long suspension of Russian tourism to Egypt.
Global Innovation Index measured the performance of 128 countries and is based on 82 sub-indices. (File photo)
06:00 GMT
The UAE ranked first among Arab countries and 41st worldwide in terms of overall performance on the 2016 Global Innovation Index, improving over last year's position.
The estimated cost of drilling one well in Zohr concession in the Mediterranean Sea’s deep water is roughly $100m. (File photo)
05:00 GMT
Work on the Zohr gas field development is now in full swing, with 'positive and promising' results in the wells.
The successful auction follows Qatar's nine billion dollar sale of Eurobonds in May 2016, which marked the largest-ever bond issue in the Middle East.  (File photo)
05:00 GMT
Qatar's central bank has auctioned three billion riyal in a successful domestic bond issue.
On September 25, the Emirates A380 service will operate EK901 and EK902, departing Dubai at 07:25hrs and arriving in Amman at 09:30hrs. (File photo)
05:00 GMT
The airline's flagship double-decker aircraft will make history with its first-ever scheduled A380 service to Queen Alia International Airport in Amman.
Employers may use this salary information as a baseline for determining the new one. (File photo)
05:00 GMT
If you’re in a situation where you feel disclosing your salary history would work against you, here are some options to deal with the negotiation.

August 16, 2016

An educational ministry spokesman said it was working with international firms to set up the independent schools model. (File photo)
15:00 GMT
The move will grant schools autonomy over administrative and financial affairs, but education will remain free for students.
An attempt to jointly freeze production levels earlier this year failed after Saudi Arabia backed out over Iran's refusal to take part of the initiative. (Shutterstock)
14:17 GMT
Crude oil is up nearly ten percent following news of discussions between Saudi Arabia and Russia, but prices are likely to remain under pressure.
Four in 10 respondents claim that their workplace offers flexible working hoursduring the summer. (Bayt)
13:24 GMT's survey of summer in the MENA workplace reveals some interesting preferences.
Al Faisaliyah Tower in the business district of Riyadh. (Shutterstock)
13:16 GMT
Experts forecast foreign investment ownership to increase by 100 percent in the next ten months as a result of eased regulations which come into effect on 4 September.
In June 2016, British Airways announced that it was suspending flights to Sharm El Sheikh indefinitely.  (File photo)
10:00 GMT
The initiative is working with SME in the tourism industry with training and special offers, but the British national carrier has not yet reinstated flights to Sharm El Sheikh.
On a per litre basis, the new retail gasoline price is still less than half of the cost of gasoline in Europe and the lowest in the GCC. (Shutterstock)
08:00 GMT
With Kuwait's subsidies amongst the highest in the world, the country's energy subsidy reforms have been hailed as an essential step towards encouraging diversification and competitiveness.
Egypt's Mohamed Mahmoud poses with his bronze medal on the podium of the Men's 77kg weightlifting competition at the Rio 2016 Olympic Games. (AFP/GOH Chai Hin)
07:00 GMT
Daily demand has so far exceeded 10,000 halal meals a day from both Muslim and non-Muslim athletes and officials, Salaam Gateway reports.
Investcorp has seen its most active period since the firm’s inception in the last 12 months after signing five new deals and exiting nine portfolio companies. (Shutterstock)
06:00 GMT
Investcorp said Nebulas would join the previously acquired Coresec and SecureLink to operate across six countries, employ 550 staff and generate more than €235m in revenue.
Several significant locations around the world have already made efforts to ban Pokemon Go hunters. (File photo)
05:00 GMT
Despite warnings about trespassing being added in the game's latest update, Pokemon Go seem to be determined to catch 'em all.
Forbes Middle East unveils the most promising startups in Egypt. (File photo)
05:00 GMT
Forbes shed light on twenty different successful startups launched by young Egyptian enterpruners from different backgrounds, from 2010 to 2016.
OPI alleges regulatory restrictions on international fund transfer in foreign currencies for its failure to settle the payments. (LinkedIn/Red Sea Housing Services Company)
05:00 GMT
The company, listed on the Saudi Tadawul, is fighting for unpaid dues from OPI International for the construction of labor camps in Angola between 2011 and 2014.
Interest rates on education loans are usually higher than on other personal loans. (File photo)
05:00 GMT
The average degree in the UAE could set you back up to half a million dirhams; here's how to bridge the gap.

August 15, 2016

The Central Bank of Egypt officially allows exchange offices to sell the US dollar with a 15 piaster difference above or below the official selling price. (File photo)
15:00 GMT
A new banking law sets fines between EGP 1m-5m and prison terms between six months and three years for exchange companies selling the US dollar at a higher rate than the CBE.
Saudi-Russian bilateral cooperation was not only focused on oil prices, but also on promoting renewable energy, nuclear energy, nuclear medicine and radio-logic technology. (AFP/File)
14:21 GMT
Russia’s Energy Minister Alexander Novak has expressed willingness to adopt common measures to help restore balance to the oil market.
Indians form the largest workforce in the UAE based on nationality. (File photo)
10:00 GMT
New measures regarding recruitment, wages and benefits will apply to 45 per cent of some two million Indians working in the UAE.
Digitization will also fuel lateral job movements and a repositioning of current jobs in the financial sector.  (Shutterstock)
09:00 GMT
Digital transformation in the financial sector has the potential to create a myriad of new services in MENA, especially for personnel with specialised skills.
If Egypt's local wheat procurement numbers were misrepresented, it may have to spend more on foreign wheat purchases to meet local demand. (Shutterstock)
08:00 GMT
Blumberg Grain's project to store Egyptian grains is up in the air amid the controversy over alleged misrepresentation of procurement numbers of its wheat supplies.
Smart Dubai has completed the first phase of its city transformation. (Shutterstock)
07:00 GMT
The 36th edition of Gitex Technology Week begins October 16 at Dubai World Trade Centre, with $800B in transportation and $700B in healthcare opportunities up for grabs.
The divestment is part of Dubai Financial Group's restructuring plan. (Aswat Masriya)
06:00 GMT
Dubai Financial Group has sold its stake in EFG Hermes to French lender Natixis in deal rumored to be worth over $100M.
Art exhibition at Dammam's King Fahd International Airport. (Twitter/Saudi Gazette)
05:00 GMT
Royal approval has been granted to establish a Royal Academy of Arts, a national theatre, a media production city, and a fund to support artists as part of the country's national transformation plan.
Windows 10 isn’t quite as robust as some might like, but Microsoft does offer a number of fine-grained, application-level controls. (File photo)
05:00 GMT
Want to lock down your install and improve security? You’ve come to the right place.
The defendants include six Saudis, two Pakistanis and one defendant each from Jordan, the Philippines, Canada, Palestine, Egypt and the UAE. (AFP/File)
05:00 GMT
The Saudi Criminal Court will reconvene after Eid al Adha to to hear the pleas of the 13 accused in the incident that resulted in the death of 107 people.
Qatar Cool uses a performance-based compensation plan and a variety of training and self-development opportunities, to ensure rewarding career paths for its employees. (Premier Qatar)
05:00 GMT
The HR team of Qatar Cool explains how they create a work environment where employees prosper and grow from within.
Having a good cushion of savings is the best solution. (File photo)
05:00 GMT
If your household relies on one income, your situation is more vulnerable than someone in a two-income household.

August 14, 2016

The Labor Ministry's eventual goal will be to recruit only skilled foreign workers in various business sectors. (Shutterstock)
14:14 GMT
The initiatives include professional tests to support technical specialties, developing employment mechanisms, guided Saudization of jobs and balancing the current Nitaqat system.
Saudis’ spending abroad was the highest among all the Gulf states, and topped that of all Arab countries.  (AFP/Fayez Nureldine)
13:14 GMT
Tourists from KSA fork out $25.1B abroad, but their expenses are dwarfed by the Chinese who spend $164.9B annually.
Many of the companies looking at Eni's Zohr are either already active in Egypt or have recently landed bordering acreage in Cyprus, such as Exxon Mobil and Total.  (Eni)
10:00 GMT
The Italian oil company is in talks with oil majors to bring in partners in a deal that could be worth up to $2.2B.
(Flickr/Fabio Achilli)
09:00 GMT
Dubai’s fleet of 9,500 taxis and will increase its presence by 40 per cent as part of its new five-year plan, which also includes a target of 50 percent of the fleet to be hybrid vehicles.
The riyal’s exchange rate  is currently at 3.75 against the U.S. dollar according to the Central Bank's website. (File photo)
08:00 GMT
Saudi Arabia’s Central Bank Governor shoots down speculation over the riyal, saying that it had “sufficient tools” to support its fixed exchange rate policy.
Austerity measures were inevitable with or without the IMF loan. (File photo)
07:00 GMT
Economists warn that the IMF fund facility is a lifeline for Egypt, but the benefits of the deal over the longer term amid risks of global economy recession are not guaranteed.
Bollywood Parks Dubai, Motiongate Dubai, and Legoland and Legoland Water Park are due to open in Dubai on October 31, 2016. (Shortlist Dubai)
06:00 GMT
Dubai Parks and Resorts reported Dh134.6M in losses in the first half of 2016, due to expenses related to its three major theme parks expected to open in October.
A bad hire can cost employers 30 per cent of the employee’s potential first year earnings. (Shutterstock)
05:00 GMT
Emphasis on compliance in financial services is fuelling the need for more thorough pre-employment screenings.
BeIN CONNECT allows you to watch the Games on the go. (Shutterstock/M. Primakov)
05:00 GMT
Join the medal mania, or fuel your dreams with Olympics-inspired apps.
It may not be a very luxurious travel experience, but budget airlines transport passengers from point A to point B at minimal cost. (Wikimedia Commons)
05:00 GMT
If you're flying low-cost airlines, watch out for hidden expenses that could eat into your budget.
The new HP Stream 11 will be one of the cheapest notebooks in the company's 2016 line-up. (Computer Shopper)
05:00 GMT
HP Stream is introducing a new line of wallet-friendly notebooks powered by Windows 10.
Operation Tidal Wave II has focused specifically on supply lines tied to the illicit movement of oil said to be financing regional terrorism operations. (Twitter/KR Security Council)
00:05 GMT
Sami Jassim Mohammed al-Jabouri, responsible for ISIL's natural resources in Iraq and Syria, was killed in operations near the Iraqi-Syrian border.

August 11, 2016

In September 2015, after bilateral negotiations in Tehran it was announced that the project will be operational by late 2017. (AFP/File)
15:00 GMT
Oman says it has arrived at an agreement with Iran to change the route and design of a planned undersea natural gas pipeline which will be meant to take natural gas from the Islamic Republic to the sultanate through the Persian Gulf.
The IMF says it has reached an initial agreement with Egypt for a $12 billion loan over three years. (AFP/File)
13:28 GMT
The deal is subject to approval by the IMF executive committee which is expected to consider Egypt's request in the coming weeks, the IMF said in a statement.
At least seven different online visa agencies operating inside and outside Oman are using Facebook and other social media apps to sell their services – often conning unsuspecting customers out of money. (AFP/File)
12:55 GMT
At least seven different online visa agencies operating inside and outside Oman are using Facebook and other social media apps to sell their services – often conning unsuspecting customers out of money.
Pilgrims line up outside the Jeddah airport in Saudi Arabia. (Shutterstock)
12:00 GMT
Authorities say the extra rooms reserved to receive pilgrims should prevent delays as they arrive in Saudi Arabia.