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Syrians run from a bomb exploding in the city of Al-Bab. (AFP/Philippe Desmazes)
10:46 GMT
Up to 45 civilians died when Syrian regime gunship helicopters dropped explosive-laden barrels on the northern city Aleppo on Saturday, according to the Syrian opposition media.
A militant from the Army of Conquest alliance destroys a statue of Bashar al-Assad in Syria's Idlib Province. (Al Bawaba/File)
09:06 GMT
The Syrian government has abandoned Idlib province to concentrate on regions deemed vital for its survival, a security source and activists said Friday, allowing insurgents to seize the province’s last regime-held city.
A refugee girl from Damascus' Palestinian Yarmouk camp stands in the streets of Shatila, a Palestinian refugee camp located in Lebanon's capital Beirut.  (AFP/Anwar Amro)
05:00 GMT
Palestinian refugees in Lebanon who fled Syria protested on Friday an UNRWA decision to cut aid to refugee families.

May 29, 2015

Turkish daily publication Cumhuriyet on Friday published images and video footage purporting to show Turkish authorities shipping weapons to rebel fighters in Syria. Turkey denies the accusations.  (AFP/Bulent Kilic)
18:18 GMT
A Turkish daily on Friday published images and video footage purporting to show Turkish authorities shipping weapons to rebel fighters in Syria.
Locals examine the damage to Imam Ali mosque in Qatif, Saudi Arabia following last Friday's suicide bomb attack that left 21 dead.  (AFP/File)
13:59 GMT
A Daesh statement on Twitter claimed responsibility for the car bomb attack on a Shiite mosque in Saudi that left four dead.
All three girls have no intention of returning home from Syria. (British Met Police)
10:30 GMT
Three teens from East London who fled to Syria have reportedly made contact with their families in the UK.
The Kurdish Women’s Protection Unit (YPJ) is a faction of Syria’s Democratic Union Party (YPG), which was banned in the country. It hasn’t stopped the members from actively fighting against government forces since 2012, and in 2014 the female warriors were voted CNN's "most inspirational women." (AFP/File)
05:00 GMT
One day in early October, a female YPJ commander detonated a grenade on herself and the militants that surrounded her — it became a symbol of the Kurdish struggle against Daesh, and the strong presence of Kurdish women on the battlefield.

May 28, 2015

The Syrian rebel coalition stormed the last government-held city in the Idlib province Thursday, a monitor said. (AFP/File)
20:21 GMT
The Syrian rebel coalition stormed the last government-held city in the Idlib province Thursday, a monitor said.
The EU is extending its sanctions against the Syrian regime for another year as the Syrian civil war rages on. (AFP/File)
20:00 GMT
The EU is extending its sanctions against the Syrian regime for another year as the Syrian civil war rages on.
An Iraqi security expert identified the group's second-leading religious authority as Ali Attiya al-Jubouri, also known as "the blind judge." (AFP/File)
19:38 GMT
An Iraqi security expert identified the group's second-leading religious authority as Ali Attiya al-Jubouri, also known as "the blind judge."
The UN representative called for a "humanitarian ceasefire" to end the bloodshed in Syria. (AFP/File)
19:10 GMT
The UN representative called for a "humanitarian ceasefire" to end the bloodshed in Syria.
We've been hearing a lot about the ancient city of Palmyra this week, but Arabic news reports suggest Daesh is now eyeing the southern Syrian city of Daraa, and the Jordanian border. (AFP/File)
16:05 GMT
According to Arabic media reports, Daesh militants say they're headed for the Jordanian border.
Lebanese army checkpoint in Arsal. (AFP/File)
13:47 GMT
Babeen refugee camp in Wadi Hmeid was raided by two army patrols as they searched for Islamists.
The ancient Syrian city of Palmyra was seized by Daesh on May 17. (AFP/File)
10:50 GMT
Daesh militants said they would only destroy statues in the ancient Syrian city of Palmyra which violated the group's religious prohibition against polytheistic depictions, The Guardian reported.
A file picture taken on March 14, 2014 shows a sculpture found in the ancient Syrian oasis city of Palmyra, 215 kilometers northeast of Damascus, displayed at the city's museum. (AFP/Joseph Eid)
08:56 GMT
The larger structures seem safe for now, but the video doesn't tell the whole story.
One female soldier claims the Daesh targets women on and off the battle field. (AFP/File)
07:54 GMT
The YPJ Kurdish women’s militia takes on Daesh in the northern Syrian city of Ras al Ayn.
News coming out of Syria gets increasingly complicated and confusing — these maps help us dumb it down. (AFP/File)
07:42 GMT
News coming out of Syria gets increasingly complicated and confusing — these maps help us dumb it down.
A Hezbollah missile annihilated a group of at least three militants in Syria's Qalamoun region along the border with Lebanon Wednesday. (AFP/File)
05:00 GMT
A Hezbollah missile annihilated a group of at least three militants in Syria's Qalamoun region along the border with Lebanon Wednesday.

May 27, 2015

Among other things, the al Qaeda leader said the group would not target the Alawite community inside Syria, despite the community's ties to the Syrian President Bashar al-Assad. (AFP/File)
23:22 GMT
On Wednesday, Al Jazeera Arabic aired an exclusive interview with the Syrian al-Qaeda leader inside Syria. Here's what he had to say.
Twenty people in Syria's ancient city of Palmyra inside an amphitheater, the monitor said Wednesday. (AFP/File)
20:29 GMT
Twenty people in Syria's ancient city of Palmyra inside an amphitheater, the monitor said Wednesday.
The Assyrian flag. (AFP/Mohammed Sawaf)
15:00 GMT
Assyrian Christians can return home after Syrian Kurdish fighters reclaimed the city from Daesh.
Zakariya Ashiq, 20, left the UK last year in an attempt to join Daesh in Syria. (West Midlands Police)
13:00 GMT
A 20-year-old British national was found guilty on charges of terrorism after trying to join Daesh in Syria last year.
At least 22 Hezbollah fighters have been killed since the group launched an offensive against Nusra Front in Qalamoun. (Hezbollah press office)
12:00 GMT
Hezbollah fighters Wednesday reportedly killed a group of Nusra Front militants in Qalamoun, retaking control of the area.
Since the caliphate was established last year, Daesh has conducted numerous terrorist attacks around the world. (AFP/File)
11:57 GMT
With the one-year anniversary of Daesh's so-called caliphate approaches, experts expect an increase in attacks around the world.
A Syrian child runs from sniper fire in the city of Aleppo. (AFP/File)
09:33 GMT
Three people were killed and at least 19 others injured by militant fire in the Syrian city of Aleppo Wednesday.
Syrian rebels make victory signs as they patrol a street in the town of Tal Abyad near the border with Turkey, last year. (AFP/File)
06:00 GMT
Turkey and US military personnel kicked off the train and equip program with a small number of rebels.

May 26, 2015

Artist Iyad Sabegh stands in front of a small metal caravan that serves as the group’s studio and storage locker, where he was in process of tagging it with a vibrantly colored mural. The unit was provided by NGO International Relief and Development and sits alongside a library and theater that also doubles as an auditorium.
22:23 GMT
A group of young artists living in Zaatari refugee camp work to preserve Syria’s rich cultural treasures with paintings, models and sculptures of Palmyra. Little did they realize how prescient their actions would be.
A file picture taken on March 14, 2014 shows the citadel (background) of the ancient oasis city of Palmyra, 215 kilometres northeast of Damascus, over looking the city. (AFP/Joseph Eid)
19:00 GMT
The Syrian government's antiquities chief made an announcement that, as of yet, Palmyra's magnificent ancient ruins remain unscathed despite Daesh's offensive.
A Syrian regime soldier aims a rocket launcher towards rebel locations in the Qalamoun region. (AFP/File)
15:00 GMT
Six Hezbollah fighters and 30 militants were killed in the Qalamoun mountains near the Lebanese-Syrian border.
here's what happens when Lebanese TV goes wrong.
12:52 GMT
This is decidedly not the best way to have a productive debate on Hezbollah.
David Cameron and Vladimir Putin voiced support for the resumption of peace talks. (AFP/File)
10:00 GMT
Vladimir Putin and David Cameron backed calls for the resumption of peace talks in Syria, in an attempt to end the four-year conflict.
Algeria has stepped up security along the country's borders to combat militancy in recent months. (AFP/File)
07:27 GMT
Algerian Minister Mohamed Issa warned against some 46,000 potential jihadi websites promoting Daesh militancy across the Middle East.
A view of a tunnel reportedly dug by Palestinians beneath the border between the Gaza Strip and Israel, uncovered by Israeli troops on Oct. 13, 2013. (AFP/David Buimovitch)
06:00 GMT
In a video Syrian rebels showed a tunnel packed with explosives for a major attack against Syrian government positions nearby.

May 25, 2015

Rebels say the 700 meter long tunnel was built using an instructional video sent by Hamas and other Palestinian groups from Gaza. (YouTube)
20:19 GMT
Tunnel warfare isn't just for Palestine anymore.
A handout picture released by the Hezbollah press office on May 16, 2015, shows a Hezbollah fighter firing toward areas controlled by militants on the Syrian side of the Qalamoun hills close to the Lebanese border. (AFP/File)
17:56 GMT
Hezbollah run-TV said the fighters captured two hilltops from al-Qaeda's Syrian wing and killed dozens of militants Monday.
The site was previously home to about 300 Syrian families who had fled the war. (Twitter)
17:40 GMT
The site was previously home to about 300 Syrian families who had fled the war.
An explosion on Monday killed four residents of Latakia, the coastal Syrian government stronghold.  The source of explosion was unclear.  (AFP/File)
16:06 GMT
An explosion Monday killed four residents of Latakia, the coastal Syrian government stronghold - source of explosion unclear.
Conflicting reports about the Latakia explosion make it unclear what struck the coastal city with clouds of orange smoke. (Twitter)
16:01 GMT
Conflicting reports about the Latakia explosion make it unclear what struck the coastal city with clouds of orange smoke.
People attend the funeral of eight Shiite worshippers gunned down during an attack on an Ashura commemoration event in Saudi Arabia, November 2014.  (AFP/File)
14:09 GMT
Shiites in Saudi Arabia's Eastern Province set up a mass funeral for the victims of the Daesh-claimed mosque attack - thousands are expected to attend.
The air support would help combat Daesh militants, Turkish Foreign Minister Mevlut Cavusoglu said. (AFP/File)
12:30 GMT
Turkish foreign minister Mevlut Cavusoglu said Ankara and the US had agreed to provide air support to Syrian opposition forces Monday.
Syrian rebels move through the town of Jisr al-Shughur, April 25, 2015. (AFP/File)
09:52 GMT
On Friday, dramatic clashes took place between Syrian troops and rebels in the town of Jisr al-Shughur's National Hospital. Rumors began to circulate of victories and fails, but what really happened?
According to Britian-based Syrian Observatory for Human Rights, the Syrian air force on Monday conducted airstrikes against a number of targets in Daesh-held UNESCO World Heritage site Palmyra.  (AFP/Joseph Eid)
09:45 GMT
Monitor says Syrian air force conducted at least 15 airstrikes targeting Daesh positions in and around Palmyra Monday.

May 24, 2015

Hafez al-Assad was only one of the leaders in a long line of successors the Syrian people don't approve of. (AFP/File)
20:08 GMT
Hafez al-Assad was only one of the leaders in a long line of successors the Syrian people don't approve of.
Zahran Alloush is head of Jaysh al-Islam, a Syrian rebel group considered a major part of the Islamic Front. (YouTube)
19:41 GMT
Zahran Alloush made some inflammatory comments in back in December; this time around, it wasn't what we were expecting.
The bomb explosion happened in the Adawi neighborhood of Damascus. (AFP/File)
18:53 GMT
A blast in downtown Damascus killed a Syrian general on Sunday, AFP has reported.
Twitter users around the world have come up with some priceless Daesh puns. (AFP/File)
18:40 GMT
Twitter users around the world have come up with some priceless Daesh puns.
Daesh currently controls parts of Syria and Iraq. (AFP/File)
17:24 GMT
The Syrian army has killed over 300 militants in a military operation in Idlib province.
Syrian refugees living in a camp. (AFP/Getty Images/Nikolay Doychinov)
14:45 GMT
The UN agency urged the international community to support those countries hosting refugees.
State media said the helicopter had suffered technical problems. (AFP/File)
12:50 GMT
Daesh claims to have shot down a Syrian military aircraft in Aleppo province, although state media said the crash was a result of technical problems, AFP has reported.
A Syrian army soldier fires artillery shells towards Daesh targets in northeastern Palmyra on May 17, 2015. (AFP/File)
12:37 GMT
Residents told Syrian state news that the bodies of the dead, including women and children, were left out on the streets,
Daesh militants waving the trademark Jihadits flag as vehicles drive on a newly cut road through the Syrian-Iraqi border between the Iraqi Nineveh province and the Syrian town of Al-Hasakah. (AFP/File)
09:02 GMT
After taking the Syrian side three days prior, Daesh is now in full control of both sides of the border crossing.
The pretty ink work Suzanne showed off on Instagram. (Al Watan Voice)
08:15 GMT
Syrian actress Suzanne Najm Eddine has a butterfly on her shoulder!

May 23, 2015

A government helicopter reportedly targeted the area of al-Hamidia in Deir Ez-Zor on Saturday. (AFP/Al-Rifai)
14:22 GMT
At least 14 people have been killed after a barrel bomb attack on Deir Ez-Zor in eastern Syria, an opposition group has claimed.
The high intensity explosive has been deemed illegal in civilian areas under international law, but the vacuum bomb has also shown up in Afghanistan, by US forces, and in Chechnya, by Russians. (AFP/File)
12:33 GMT
High heat, high pressure bombs deemed illegal under international law — this is the vacuum bomb, and it may have just resurfaced.
Daesh took full control of Ramadi last week. (AFP/File)
12:20 GMT
Iraqi armed forces have retaken a police station in a western town in the country’s Anbar Province from ISIL militants after they started a military operation to liberate the provincial capital, Ramadi.
Daesh hostage John Cantlie is regularly used in the group's propaganda videos and articles. Image used for illustrative purposes. (Al Bawaba/File)
11:12 GMT
Daesh's propaganda magazine Dabiq featured an article suggesting the group is expanding so rapidly it could buy its first nuclear weapon within a year.
Residents bike in Syria's ancient city of Palmyra, most of which is now controlled by Daesh. (Al Bawaba/File)
08:11 GMT
The UN Security Council has expressed grave concern for thousands of people trapped inside Syria’s ancient city of Palmyra after it was captured by Daesh militants.

May 22, 2015

Women pray in a church in Syria. A Syriac Catholic priest was kidnapped along with a companion near Qaryatayn, in Homs governorate, says an NGO. (AFP/Louai Beshara)
17:09 GMT
A Syriac Catholic priest was kidnapped along with a companion near Qaryatayn, in Homs governorate, says an NGO.
US fighter jets have been carrying out airstrikes against Daesh positions in Syria for over eight months. (AFP/File)
12:00 GMT
Pentagon officials admitted killing civilians during the US-led coalition's air campaign against Daesh militants in Syria.
The 16-year-old was stopped from leaving the UK by counter-terror officers after an undercover investigation by the Daily Mail. (AFP/File)
11:54 GMT
British police prevented a 16-year-old from leaving London to join Daesh militants in Syria following an undercover investigation by the Daily Mail.
The 27-year-old is believed to have been killed while fighting in Palmyra. (AFP/File)
10:38 GMT
A Daesh militant from Palestine was killed fighting in the Syrian city of Palmyra. The 27-year-old is believed to have joined the terrorist group five months ago.
Many Syrian rebel fighters' weapons are homemade due to their lack of funding and access to ammunition. (AFP/File)
08:00 GMT
These amateurs show they know how to be resourceful in war.
An image made available by the extremist Twitter account al-Baraka news, showing Daesh militants on a newly cut road through the Syrian-Iraqi border between the Iraqi Nineveh province and the Syrian town of al-Hasakah. (AFP/File)
00:25 GMT
Several officials confirmed Daesh has taken control of the border crossing in the Homs province.

May 21, 2015

At least four of the people were beheaded. (AFP/File)
19:03 GMT
At least 17 people have been executed in the ancient Syrian city of Palmyra, AFP has reported. Four of them are thought to have been beheaded.
No, Hollywood star turned anti-Daesh fighter Michael Enright was not arrested by the YPG in Syria. (AFP/File)
18:35 GMT
Watch a Reddit news "exclusive" go delightfully wrong.
Foreign involvement and internal turmoil has sent many of these MENA countries into a corruption black hole. (AFP/File)
17:56 GMT
Here are the MENA countries that made it to the top ten list no one wants to be on.
One of the men had been previously arrested for smuggling rockets. (AFP/File)
16:42 GMT
Three people have been arrested in Lebanon, accused of financing armed groups in Syria, according to the Lebanese Army.
Three people were also injured in the attacks. (AFP)
15:50 GMT
Two mortar attacks close to Russian's embassy in the Syrian capital of Damascus have left at least one person dead.
Daesh is present in 10 of Syria's 14 provinces. (AFP/File)
15:18 GMT
Daesh is now in control of half of Syria, according to the monitoring group the Syrian Observatory for Human Rights.
Emergency responders rush following a reported barrel bomb attack by government forces in 2014. (AFP/Tamer al-Halabi)
13:03 GMT
A video broadcasted by Al Jazeera and posted online appeared to show government forces indiscriminately dropping barrel bombs over Syria.
A Hezbollah fighter looks over a hill in the Qalamoun region, May 20, 2015. (AFP/File)
11:29 GMT
Lebanese security forces shelled militant positions on the border with Syria Thursday in a bid to thwart terrorist attacks.
Kazakh Foreign Minister Yerlan Idrisov. (AFP/File)
10:41 GMT
Kazakh Foreign Minister Yerlan Idrisov announced that Syrian opposition groups will be meeting in the capital city of Astana.
A website is using open source data to report on war, hoping someday it could lead to preventing it. (liveuamap.com)
10:10 GMT
A website is using open source data to report on war, hoping someday it could lead to preventing it.
A general view taken on May 18, 2015 shows the ancient Syrian city of Palmyra, a day after Daesh militants fired rockets into the city, killing several people. (AFP/File)
08:51 GMT
After taking control of most of Palmyra, Daesh now controls more than a half of Syria, reports activists.
A screenshot shows a Daesh militant holding up a black flag in the Iraqi city of Ramadi, May 18, 2015. (AFP/File)
08:35 GMT
French authorities confirmed Wednesday they would hold a meeting with the international community on how to stop Daesh militants in Iraq and Syria.
A bomb placed by Bashar al-Assad's army detonates in the Syrian city of Aleppo, May 20, 2015. (AFP/File)
07:33 GMT
Over a dozen suspected Nusra Front militants were killed by a coalition airstrike in the Syrian city of Aleppo Wednesday.
Six of the accused militants are believed to have attempted to enter Syria through Turkey. (AFP/File)
07:00 GMT
Canadian security forces arrested ten militants who reportedly attempted to leave the country to join Islamists in Syria.
Hezbollah fighters and the Syrian government seized control of a number of strategic hilltop positions Wednesday. (AFP/File)
05:00 GMT
Hezbollah fighters and the Syrian government seized control of a number of strategic hilltop positions Wednesday.

May 20, 2015

In 2011, it was the cradle of the Syrian revolution. More than four years later, this is what  Daraa has become. (AFP/File)
23:42 GMT
These are the truly depressing realities for civilians still inside Syria
Syrian rebels have made sweeping gains in recent months in the eastern province of Idlib, closing in on the last government strongholds in the province this week. (AFP/File)
23:25 GMT
Here we see Ahram al Sham, an opposition group in Syria, guide us through a newly 'liberated' section of Idlib, in eastern Syria.
Daesh has taken nearly full control of Syria's northeastern ancient city after heavy clashes with regime forces. (AFP/File)
20:30 GMT
Daesh has taken nearly full control of Syria's northeastern ancient city after heavy clashes with regime forces.
A meeting among the countries' envoys was aimed at boosting aid for Jordan's efforts on the refugee crisis. (AFP/File)
15:00 GMT
A meeting among the countries' envoys was aimed at boosting aid for Jordan's efforts on the refugee crisis.
Jaber was one of a few prominent Western journalists whose name came up in a collection of nearly 3,000 emails from 2011 and 2012 from the email accounts of Assad and his inner circle, obtained by opposition members and given to the media. (AFP/File)
14:40 GMT
NOW media revealed pretty friendly emails between the Sunday Times reporter and key members of the Assad regime.
Now's #AssadLeaks coverage also features emails reportedly sent to Bashar al-Assad from Saddam Hussein and senior intelligence officers presenting plots to kidnap key religious figures in Homs. (AFP/File)
13:45 GMT
New documents reportedly obtained by NOW media show a string of email correspondences between the Assad regime's inner circle and well known Western journalists.
A Syrian army soldier fires artillery shells towards Islamic State (IS) group jihadists in northeastern Palmyra on May 17, 2015. (AFP/File)
13:24 GMT
Daesh engaged the regime in more heavy fighting near Palmyra on Wednesday, seizing a checkpoint after taking control of a security building.
A Syrian man carries a body after it was removed from the rubble of buildings following a reported barrel bomb attack by government forces on the Qadi Askar district of the northern Syrian city of Aleppo on May 20, 2015. (AFP/Zein al-Rifai)
11:55 GMT
A school was allegedly struck by two mortar shells. Most of the injured students are in critical condition.
Syrians stand in rubble after their neighborhood was bombed by Bashar al-Assad's army in Ain Tarma, east of Damascus, May 14, 2015. (AFP/File)
10:55 GMT
Rumors circulated for years that Bashar al-Assad was emptying Sunni areas and replacing them with Shia or Alawite supporters. Will the UN take notice?
A man carring the body of a child walks amid the debris following a reported air strike by Syrian government forces in the rebel-held town of Saraqeb, southeast of Idlib, on May 16, 2015. (AFP/Amr Radwan al-Homsi)
09:30 GMT
Regime forces dropped a vacuum bomb killing 20 people and injuring 30 others on Tuesday.

May 19, 2015

Several historical cities in Syria once bursting with culture have been left behind. (Twitter)
23:06 GMT
The aftermath of the Syrian civil war may be best told through a series of photos.
A Syrian family uses candles to get light at their home during a power outage in a district of Damascus, November 2013. (AFP/File)
21:27 GMT
A ministry official said the sudden drop showed evidence of "the scale of the damage to infrastructure."
The US-led coalition is conducting an intense air campaign against Daesh in the northeast province of Hasakeh. (Al Bawaba/File)
18:45 GMT
Air strikes by a US-led coalition against the Islamic State group (ISIS, also known as Daesh) in northeastern Syria have killed around 170 jihadists in the past 48 hours, a monitoring group said Tuesday.
"Jordan does not accept that its ... support for the Syrian people and for a political solution be put in doubt," asserted Jordan's government spokesman Mohamed al-Momani. (AFP/Khalil Mazraawi)
16:26 GMT
Jordan on Tuesday rejected Syrian accusations that "terrorists" were being given military training on its soil, insisting Amman favored a political solution to its neighbor's conflict.
Armed rebel fighters walk down a road in the northern Syrian town of Jisr al-Shughur, on April 25, 2015 (AFP/Ghaith Omran)
15:28 GMT
A coalition of rebel fighters seized the last standing regime military base in Idlib after ongoing clashes.
According to Arabic media, Um Sayyaf conducted Daesh operations alongside her husband, including the investigation, detainment and eventual execution of Jordanian pilot Muath Kasasbeh. (AFP/File)
15:04 GMT
Now in US custody, wife of key Daesh militant Abu Sayyaf killed by US Special forces Saturday could offer inside details about the January death of Jordanian pilot Muath Kasasbeh.
The Lebanese army shelled jihadi positions deep in the outskirts, which comprise an area of around 400 square kilometers. (AFP/File)
14:30 GMT
The Lebanese army shelled the border near Arsal Tuesday, as Daesh and Nusra clash nearby.
Muath Kasasbeh's execution video shocked Jordan in February and prompted the kingdom to intensify bombing efforts against Daesh in Syria. (AFP/File)
13:09 GMT
Remember Abu Sayyaf? The key Daesh figure the Pentagon killed in a special forces raid on Saturday? Turns out, he may have also been a key figure in the execution of Jordanian pilot Muath al-Kasasbeh in January.
As the battle for Idlib heats up, the media war does too. Here's a look from the rebels POV. (AFP/File)
12:30 GMT
As rebels push against the last government strongholds in Syria's Idlib province, one video takes viewers into a shelling-punctuated look on the front lines.
Said was crowned winner of Ukraine Got Talent 2015 this week. (All4Syria)
11:25 GMT
Syrian Said Jurdi wins the 2015 Ukrainian edition of Got Talent.

May 18, 2015

One aspect of Palmyra has been kept in the dark: its heinous prison. (Google Maps)
22:06 GMT
One aspect of Palmyra has been kept in the dark: its heinous prison.