The three-time defending Formula One world champion extended his points lead with the victory in the 57-lap event, passing pole-sitter Nico Rosberg early on and never looking back.
Red Bull's Vettel crossed the finish line 9.1 seconds ahead of second-place finisher Kimi Raikkonen of Lotus.
The result handed the 25-year-old German his 28th career F1 victory -- sixth-most on the all-time list -- and his second of the season following his March 24 Malaysian Grand Prix triumph.
Vettel used the win to extend his F1 lead over Raikkonen to 10 points.
As in last year's Bahrain race, Lotus' Romain Grosjean claimed third.
Force India's Paul di Resta and Lewis Hamilton of Mercedes rounded out the Top 5.