The 35-year-old Frenchman's glittering career has seen him play for Arsenal, Juventus and Manchester City.
Senegal-born Vieira moved to France at an early age and played 107 times for Les Blues, including a substitute appearance in the 1998 final when France won the World Cup by beating Brazil 3-0 in Paris.
He also won the 2000 European Championship, four Serie A titles with Inter Milan and three Premier League titles with Arsenal, as well as five FA Cups - four with the London side and last season's Wembley triumph with City.
Retirement from the pitch will see Vieira in a new role for Manchester City. He has been appointed as the club's Football Development Executive to work closely with City's youngsters and to be an ambassador for the club.
He described the end of his playing career as a sad day but was optimistic about his new role: "Yes this is the end of my playing career, but this role is a fantastic new challenge for me.
He added: "I have a lot to learn about the non-playing areas of the business but there are many very experienced people here for me to learn from and I am confident that I can make a significant contribution to the club's ongoing success."
Vieira joined Manchester City eighteen months ago when he became Roberto Mancini's first signing.