Doping in athletics - a chronology
A picture taken on December 15, 2015 shows two blood samples of an athlete about to be analyzed at the French national anti-doping laboratory, in Chatenay-Malabry, outside Paris.
A chronology of major events around revelations about the systematic doping of Russian and other athletes, and corruption within the ruling body IAAF.
December 3, 2014 - German broadcaster ARD alleges systematic doping, the cover-up of controls and corruption in Russian sport. It provides secret recordings and witness statements to back up the allegations.
December 4 - In response to the allegations, International Olympic Committee (IOC) president Thomas Bach promises a crackdown.
December 11 - Papa Massata Diack, son of then athletics governing body IAAF president Lamine Diack, leaves his marketing consultancy position with the IAAF and Valentin Balakhnichev resigns as IAAF treasurer.
December 12 - Gabriel Dolle resigns his position as director of the IAAF anti-doping unit.
December 16 - Former World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) boss Dick Pound leads a three-person independent committee to investigate the allegations made of doping in elite Russian sport.
January 20, 2015 - The Russian Anti-Doping Agency (RUSADA) suspends five walkers, including three Olympic champions, for drug violations.
January 23 - Russia athletics coach Valentin Maslakov resigns.
January 30 - Steeplechase Olympic and former world champion Yuliya Zaripova is banned by RUSADA for doping offences.
February 16 - Lamine Diack admits there is a "serious crisis" in relation to the allegations of doping in Russian sport.
February 17 - Balakhnichev resigns as head of the Russian Athletics Federation and is replaced by Vadim Zelichenok.
April 21 - IAAF president Diack says suggestions Russia could be banned from Olympics or worlds are "a joke."
July 16 - Due to investigations into doping, the Russian federation withdraws the entire walking team from the August worlds in Beijing.
August 2 - ARD and the Sunday Times newspaper say they have a list of 12,000 blood values from 5,000 runners taken from 2001-2012 at Olympic Games and World Championships. It includes 800 athletes with values which indicate a suspicion of doping.
August 6 - A doping ban served by Liliya Shobukhova, a Russian winner of major global marathons, is extended by 14 months to March 2016. Shobukhova said in the ARD documentary she paid 450,000 euros (480,000 dollars) to cover up a positive test and compete at the London 2012 Olympics.
August 19 - Briton Sebastian Coe is elected new IAAF president.
November 4 - Lamine Diack is charged by French prosecutors and is accused of bribery and money laundering, along with his Papa Massata Diack, his lawyer Habib Cisse and Dolle.
November 5 - Five Russian athletes are banned due to doping offences.
November 6 - French prosecutor Eliane Houlette alleges Lamine Diack accepted more than 1 million euros (1.1 million dollars) during his time in office to cover up positive doping samples.
November 9 - The WADA independent committee publishes its report on doping in Russian elite sport. It recommends the IAAF should suspend Russia from competition, and that five athletes and five coaches be given lifetime doping bans.
November 10 - WADA suspend accreditation of Moscow doping laboratory, IOC provisionally suspend Diack as honorary member and call on IAAF and WADA "to consider all necessary action to be taken to protect the clean athletes and rebuild trust."
November 11 - Diack resigns as IOC honorary member and president of the International Athletics Foundation.
November 13 - The IAAF provisionally suspends the Russian federation in a move barring it from international track and field events. The suspension is for an indefinite period and could include next year's Olympics in Rio de Janeiro.
November 19 - The IAAF sets out five principals Russia must meet to be reinstated, with verification to be carried out by the IAAF.
November 26 - Russia accepts full suspension by IAAF and pledges to co-operate.
December 22 - Coe's office director, and former IAAF spokesman, Nick Davies steps down from his duties, pending the outcome of an ethics committee probe in connection with emails ahead of the 2013 worlds suggesting plans to delay Russian doping offenders.
January 7 - Papa Massata Diack is banned for life by the IAAF ethics commission over the Shobukhova allegations, along with Balakhnichev and Russian coach Alexei Menikov. Dolle is banned for five years.
January 11 - An IAAF response to the first WADA report names the allegations "truly abhorrent" but says "there was no systematic corruption within the IAAF," that all athletes were eventually sanctioned and staffers repeadly confronting Diack over the issue.
January 12 - An IAAF taskforce completes a first visit to Russia to assess what steps are being taken in its reform effort.
January 14 - The WADA independent committee publishes the second part of its report. It says former IAAF president Diack "was responsible for organizing and enabling the conspiracy and corruption that took place" and the IAAF council, which included now president Coe, could not have been unaware of the extent of doping in athletics, the level of nepotism in the IAAF and showed "an evident lack of political appetite ... to confront Russia."