Natural Gas – part two

Published December 27th, 2000 - 02:00 GMT

Industrialized Asia:For the countries of industrialized Asia, natural gas consumption is expected to rise from 3.2 trillion cubic feet in 1997 to 5.2 trillion cubic feet in 2020.  


Gas use in Japan, the world’s largest consumer of LNG, accounts for 70 percent of the incremental increase over the period, increasing from 2.3 to 3.7 trillion cubic feet in the IEO2000 reference case. Although in the short run Japanese demand growth is affected by economic recession there, LNG imports to Japan are expected in the long run to grow slowly from their large base.  


The September 1999 occurrence of Japan’s worst nuclear accident in history could ultimately affect gas use, which is consumed primarily in the electricity sector, competing with nuclear power.  


As not only the largest but also the first LNG importer in Asia, Japan has several major contracts that end over the next 5 to 10 years. Whether or not Japanese utilities seek to renew those contracts and/or secure LNG from other suppliers could have a major impact on the gas industry in the region.  


In September 1999, Tokyo Electric (Tepco) and Tohuku reached an initial agreement with Indonesia’s Pertamina to extend their purchase of Arun LNG for another 5 years from the 2005 conclusion of their current contract. Volumes would drop from 3.5 million metric tons per year in 1999 to 1 million metric tons per year (reflecting Japan’s uncertain demand outlook and desire to diversify suppliers).  


In view of increasing competition among suppliers, the agreement is good news for Pertamina, although a firm contract must still be finalized [43]. Tokyo Electric and Tokyo Gas also have contracts with Malaysia that will expire before 2005. 


Australia is not a large gas consumer (fifth largest in the Asian region in 1997), but it is an important LNG exporter using its sizable resources located in the northwest, far from domestic demand centers.  


In 1999, Texaco and Chevron announced the discovery of a new field holding several trillion cubic feet of gas near the existing Gorgon reserves offshore Western Australia (Figure 54). Although the Gorgon and nearby fields contain proven, probable, and possible reserves of 21.5 trillion cubic feet—enough to more than double Australia’s current LNG exports—no buyer has yet signed a final sales contract, delaying development plans [44].  


Australia is promoting its LNG in China (a future importer) and Taiwan, and a number of high-level government and private-sector meetings were held in 1999. 


At the same time, there are also plans for Australia to become a gas importer, via a pipeline planned from Papua New Guinea (PNG) to northeastern (Queensland) Australia. In July 1999, the $3.5 billion dollar project involving Chevron received a boost with the finalization of sales contracts between upstream producers and Australian buyers. 


The Australian side of the pipeline will be built and owned by a joint venture between Australian Gas Light Company and Malaysia’s Petronas. On the PNG side, owners of the gas assets are expected to set up an entity for pipeline construction, funding, and ownership [45]. 


Developing Asia:  

Developing Asia includes the two most populous countries in the world, China and India—emerging giants that are geographically large, have large economies, and are expected to have a tremendous impact on gas use in the region.  


At the same time, China and India accounted for only about 15 percent of gas use in the region in 1997, and both use a much smaller proportion of gas in their total energy mix than the region as a whole.  


For now, much of the gas market growth and significant infrastructure projects are taking place elsewhere in the region, largely, in Southeast Asia. At the beginning of 1999, Singapore agreed to import gas via pipeline from Indonesia’s Natuna West field. 


A contract involving SembCorp Industries, Ltd. (a government-linked company in Singapore) calls for deliveries of 325 million cubic feet of gas per day over a 22-year period and links the price primarily to Singapore spot prices for high-sulfur fuel oil.  


The project has raised controversy in Indonesia, including allegations of corruption because of linkages to Mohamad “Bob” Hasan, a businessman and close friend of former president Suharto.  


A pipeline construction contract worth $335 million was awarded to McDermott, and Hasan holds about 18 percent equity in McDermott Indonesia. In October, however, two independent audits reported that the contract was awarded fairly. The pipeline is under construction, with deliveries still scheduled to start in 2001 [46].  


A second deal between Singapore and Indonesia, worth about $7 billion and leading to further pipeline trade, was also finalized in September 1999.  


The 20-year contract set to begin in 2002 calls for state-owned Singapore Power to buy from Pertamina initially 150 million cubic feet per day of gas, with volumes increasing up to 350 million cubic feet per day by 2008. Gas could be used increasingly in Singapore for power generation and petrochemicals [47]. 


Despite its political and economic upheaval, Indonesia is completing an eighth train at its Bontang LNG plant. Train H is set to begin exporting gas to Taiwan and South Korea by the end of 1999 or early 2000. Already the world’s largest LNG exporter, Indonesia would also like to proceed with construction of a grassroots LNG plant, “Tangguh,” in Wiriagar, Irian Jaya, using reserves discovered by British Gas and ARCO (which will merge with BP Amoco).  


To do so, Pertamina must find buyers for the LNG, which it is actively marketing to China in competition with Australian producers, among others [48]. In its domestic market, the Indonesian government will reduce natural gas prices from around $2.50 per million Btu (U.S. dollars) to about $1.50 per million Btu, in response to a dramatic plunge in gas use over the past 2 years, during which domestic contracts were priced in dollars and the Indonesian rupiah depreciated sharply against the U.S. dollar [49].  


Elsewhere in Southeast Asia, production and delivery of contracted gas from the Yadana field in Myanmar (formerly Burma) was delayed until 2000 because of the postponed completion of Thailand’s Ratchaburi power plant from its originally scheduled July 1998 startup.  


The Petroleum Authority of Thailand (PTT), which has a take-or-pay contract with the Yadana consortium, recently reached settlement to pay for some of the gas not taken. It was at first claiming “force majeure” following paralyzing events of the Asian financial and economic crisis [50].  


Early estimates from PTT are that it will transmit 10 percent more gas in 1999 than the previous year, suggesting some recovery from the Asian crisis in the gas sector [51]. 


Completion of the Ratchaburi plant and recovery of Thai gas demand growth will also be important, because Malaysia and Thailand have reached agreement over the development of gas resources in their joint development area (JDA), with infrastructure construction to begin as early as 2000.  


Initially, project equity is split with 50 percent held by Petronas and 50 percent by PTT. Thailand may offer equity to foreign investors. In September 1999, Thai cabinet ministers approved a PTT investment plan for the project, which includes a pipeline and gas separation plant [52].  


Malaysia could take all of the gas during the initial years of production if Thai demand cannot at first absorb the supply [53].  


The first phase of the project (with targeted completion by 2002) calls for a 220-mile off/onshore pipeline from the JDA through the southern Thai town of Songkhla to the Malaysian province of Kedah.  


A second phase would involve a pipeline connecting JDA gas fields to the PTT grid in the Gulf of Thailand. Thai environmentalists quickly objected to the approval of investment plans before public hearings could be convened [54].  


In 1998, Petronas of Malaysia signed eight oil and gas production sharing contracts (PSCs), the highest number in 10 years, reflecting the 1997 introduction of new revenue-over-cost formulae in PSCs [55].  


Petronas also reached an agreement with Metropolis (wholly owned by Enron) to supply 2.6 million metric tons of LNG to India for a 20-year period starting in 2002. If a final contract is signed, it could be the first arrangement for delivery of Asian LNG into India [56].  


India moved forward in 1999 with other plans to begin importing gas, which involve a host of projects and potential LNG terminals. In May, Enron’s 624-megawatt Dabhol I power plant began operating, and the 1,624-megawatt Dabhol II reached financial closure [57]. Dabhol I is initially burning naphtha but will switch to LNG, and Dabhol II should use LNG at startup.  


Enron is making shipping arrangements for LNG imports, which are planned to start in 2002 (from Oman) and will eventually send fuel to the Dabhol power plants. Petronet is still pursuing plans for two initial LNG import terminals, and other terminals are also planned.  


In July, a 25-year agreement was signed with Rasgas for the purchase of 7.5 million metric tons of LNG per year, although a final contract must still be signed. The agreement calls for delivery of 5 million metric tons per year to a terminal at Dahej in Gujarat and 2.5 million metric tons per year to Cochin in Kerala [58]. Deliveries are scheduled to begin July 2003.  


Gujarat Pipavav LNG, involving British Gas and Sea King Engineers, obtained agreement from India’s National Thermal Power Corporation (NTPC) to take on a 26-percent equity stake in their project.  


British Gas and Sea King will then jointly hold a 50-percent share and offer the balance to public-sector gas users. As part of the agreement, an international tender will be issued to select an LNG supplier, although British Gas had earlier signed a memorandum of understanding with Yemen LNG.  


NTPC also continues to pursue an equity stake in Petronet and will eventually seek the best LNG price possible to fuel its power plants [59].  


Another Indian LNG project in strong standing involves Total and Tata Electric Companies (TEC) at Trombay near Mumbai (formerly, Bombay). Equity in the project’s joint subsidiary, Indigas, will be acquired by Gas Authority of India (GAIL).  


TEC and GAIL have agreed to initial purchases of 3 million metric tons of LNG imports per year. TEC will use the gas to fuel its Trombay power station, and GAIL will market gas to industries around Mumbai [60].  


Plans for gas imports to India reflect expectations of rising consumption. In the IEO2000 reference case, gas use in India is projected to grow at an average annual rate of nearly 8 percent per year from 1997 to 2020, increasing sixfold. 


China, also moving toward initiating LNG imports, has undertaken a feasibility study of importing LNG in Guangdong. Australia has remained visible as the potential supplier, with visits to southern China by Australia’s Foreign Minister.  


The Chinese import project involves a consortium led by China National Offshore Oil Corporation (CNOOC), which is likely to retain a 36-percent equity share. CNOOC is to invite bids from foreign companies, which will be allowed to acquire a 35-percent share [61].  


In addition, Shell has reached a gas and power joint venture agreement with China National Petroleum Company (CNPC) for a $3 billion project to construct pipelines and convert power plants and industrial facilities from coal to gas supplied from the Ordos Basin (Changbei field) [62]. 


In LNG-importing South Korea, monopoly importer Kogas faces deregulation and privatization. Presenting a restructuring plan in October 1999, the Commerce, Industry and Energy Ministry proposed spinning off and selling importing and wholesale units of Kogas as well as selling off its stakes in storage facilities and the main pipeline network by 2001 [63].  


Taiwan, another LNG importer, was hit by a major earthquake in September 1999. Damage to the power grid could cause Taipower to take less LNG from Chinese Petroleum Corporation (CPC) in 2000 for power generation. 


Middle East : 

As a region, the Middle East has the second largest natural gas reserves after the former Soviet Union. Reserves in the Middle East were estimated at 1,750 trillion cubic feet as of January 1, 2000. Iran, Qatar, and the United Arab Emirates (UAE) have the second, third, and fourth largest reserves in the world, respectively, following Russia.  


Middle East reserves, which expanded rapidly in the late 1980s and early 1990s, include the super-giant gas structure involving Qatar’s North Field and Iran’s South Pars.  


With its large reserves, the Middle East is a strong producer and growing exporter of natural gas, although domestic consumption to date has generally been quite low in the region.  


The IEO2000 reference case projects a doubling of Middle East gas consumption between 1997 and 2020, rising from 6.0 to 12.0 trillion cubic feet.  


Turkey, one of the fastest growing gas markets, suffered a major earthquake in August 1999 (and another in November), taking at least 16,000 lives and causing infrastructure damage, especially to an oil refinery, but not to gas pipelines.  


Fierce competition continued among gas projects proposing to supply the Turkish market. Russian Gazprom’s Blue Stream project (involving a pipeline from Russia directly to Turkey under the Black Sea) signed a memorandum of understanding with Italy’s Eni in February 1999 and then received a series of approvals in Russia.  


Construction of the pipeline could begin in 2000, according to project participants. The competing Trans-Caspian Pipeline proposal (which would export Turkmen gas to Turkey via the Caspian Sea) also received a boost when commercial agreements were signed in November in Istanbul with President Clinton attending [64].  


In an effort to provide gas for domestic development in the south Persian Gulf region, the UAE Offsets Group (UOG) has begun promoting the “Dolphin” gas venture. The UAE and Oman have little gas for local demand, because resources are earmarked for export.  


Thus, a pipeline has been proposed from Qatar’s North Field to Abu Dhabi, Dubai, and Oman—with a proposed future extension on to Pakistan. UOG has signed a memorandum of understanding with Mobil Oil Qatar, Inc., for gas volumes in the range of 300 to 500 million cubic feet per day.  


Developers say construction could start in 2000, with deliveries by 2003 [65]. Elsewhere in the UAE, BC Gas of Canada began connecting gas consumers to a new domestic gas grid in Sharjah [66].  


In Qatar, the Mobil-led RasGas LNG venture loaded its first cargo in August 1999. Korean owned and operated LNG carriers will ship the LNG to Korea under a 25-year contract.  


A second LNG train under construction is on schedule and expected to start up in the first half of 2000. In addition, further trains can be expected if a RasGas agreement is finalized with India for 7.5 million metric tons per year of LNG [67].  


Qatar has also announced intentions to develop a commercial-scale gas-to-liquids (GTL) conversion project that would use its substantial domestic reserves for emerging GTL technologies.  


Elsewhere in the Middle East, Israel has announced that natural gas will power 25 percent of its electricity needs by 2005, but it is still seeking gas supplies.  


British Gas has discussed exploring for gas in Israel, and Egypt is also a possible source, although talks between the two countries stalled in 1999.  


Israel is prequalifying bidders for an upcoming tender on development of domestic gas infrastructure, which is due to be issued in the first quarter of 2000 [68]. A pipeline is currently under construction from Egypt to Jordan and on to the Palestinian Authority areas [69], and plans are nearing finalization for a pipeline from Syria to Lebanon that would supply Lebanon with 105 million cubic feet of gas per day.  


The pipeline would have two sections: a 75-mile stretch from the Syrian city of Homs to Deir Ammar in northern Lebanon and a 90-mile portion continuing to the southern Lebanese town of Zahrani. Conoco and Elf already signed a deal to process gas from the Syrian Deir al-Zur field [70].  


Saudi Arabia is also seeking to increase domestic gas use and has undertaken a $4 billion program to develop gas infrastructure and the non-associated gas reserves from the Khuff reservoir.  


The gas will go to the new Hawiyah gas processing plant (due on stream in 2001) and to power plants in Riyadh. Saudi Arabia’s 204 trillion cubic feet of gas reserves are primarily associated gas, which was flared until the early 1980s. Gas is currently produced from about 10 of more than 80 known fields and is used in fertilizer and petrochemical plants at Jubail and Yanbu [71].  



Gas reserves in Africa account for nearly 8 percent of global stocks. With new additions in Egypt and Nigeria, the region’s reserves amount to 394 trillion cubic feet. Roughly 70 percent of Africa’s domestic gas consumption and more than 80 percent of its production occurs in Algeria and Egypt.  


Algeria exports 70 percent of its domestic production via pipeline and LNG tanker. Within Africa, natural gas remains the least utilized fossil fuel. Low growth in Africa’s gas consumption (Figure 57) reflects a lack of economic growth in much of the region as a result of political instability, which has been particularly severe in sub-Saharan Africa.  


In Ghana and the Ivory Coast (in West Africa), economic growth has led to rising demand for energy and associated interest in natural gas development, particularly for electricity generation.  


Domestic use of natural gas in Africa is heavily for power generation, amounting to 40 percent of the region’s gas demand [72].  


In the IEO2000 forecast, Africa’s natural gas consumption continues to grow at a relatively slow pace. The average projected growth rate of 1.8 percent annually from 1997 to 2020 is the slowest among the developing regions, including the Middle East, developing Asia, and Central and South America. In the reference case, total gas use in Africa rises from 1.8 trillion cubic feet in 1997 to 2.8 trillion cubic feet in 2020.  


In 1999, Nigeria’s LNG (NLNG) export facility came on stream amid continued protests by local activists demanding jobs and cash payments.  


Protests that closed down the Bonny plant in September, just 2 weeks after production began, and again in late September and early October, ended after negotiations with government officials. NLNG was able to repair related damage and make its first delivery to France at the end of October [73].  


In early 1999, Shell awarded a construction contract for a third Nigerian LNG train to a consortium involving Technip, Snamprogetti, MW Kellogg, and JGC Corp. More than 70 percent of the LNG from the expansion has already been sold to Spain’s Enagas over a 21-year period [74].  


Like Qatar, Nigeria has tentative plans for a GTL project (see box on pages 59-60), with South Africa’s Sasol as a partner.  


Plans to supply Nigerian gas to Ghana, primarily for power generation, also made progress in 1999. The West African Gas Pipeline (WAGP) joint venture agreement was signed in August by six energy companies, including Chevron, Shell, and the oil companies of Nigeria, Ghana, Benin, and Togo.  


The consortium seeks to build a $400 million pipeline by 2002 that would send initially about 120 million cubic feet per day of now flared Nigerian gas to Ghana, Togo, and Benin [75]. In addition, Ghana has started up the second of two gas-fired power plants using offshore Ivoirian gas [76].  


There is also development of domestic resources for power generation in the Tano Fields Development and Power Project, involving a 100- to 140-megawatt power plant fueled by offshore gas [77].  


Egypt, too, is moving toward expanding its domestic gas market, in part to switch from oil to gas and save oil for export.  


The state-owned Egyptian General Petroleum Company (EGPC) has amended agreements with BP Amoco and Eni, allowing production to expand at offshore gas fields (in the Ras el-Barr concession) in order to supply the domestic market.  


Investments of up to $200 million will be used to expand production by up to 399 million cubic feet per day by 2002. In addition, BP Amoco together with Burlington Resources has also signed a separate gas sales agreement with EGPC for gas off the coast of northern Sinai.  


Requiring a $150 million investment, production from three fields in the area, which could reach 110 million cubic feet per day by 2004, will also be used for the domestic market [78].  


EGPC will also form a joint venture with UK-based British Gas and Italy’s Edison International to develop Egypt’s largest gas field, Sacarab/Saffron, in the Nile Delta. 


Production of high-quality gas from the field is expected to start in 2003 and build quickly to deliveries of about 530 million cubic feet per day for a contract period of at least 17 years.  


The European Investment Bank (EIB) will advance a loan to Egyptian Natural Gas Company (Gasco) for the construction and operation of a pipeline to move gas from the Suez Canal region to a distribution plant north of Cairo, which will reinforce the domestic grid [79]. 

Source: United States Energy Information Administration 




1. British Petroleum Company, BP Amoco Statistical Review of World Energy 1999 (London, UK, June 1999), web site  

2. Energy Information Administration, Annual Energy Outlook 2000, DOE/EIA-0383(2000) (Washington, DC, December 1999). 

3. Energy Information Administration, Country Analysis Briefs: Canada, web site (September 1999). 

4. Energy Information Administration, Country Analysis Briefs: Canada, web site (September 1999). 

5. “FERC OKs Southern LNG Terminal, Operations Set To Begin 2002,” Natural Gas Week (December 20, 1999). 

6. “Columbia LNG Moving To Reactivate Cove Point, MD LNG Terminal,” Inside F.E.R.C.’s Gas Market Report (December 10, 1999), p. 12. 

7. U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy, Natural Gas Imports and Exports, Third Quarter 1999, DOE/FE-0412 (Washington, DC, December 1999), pp. vi-vii. 

8. “Europipe II Ready for Start-Up,” Financial Times: Gas Markets Week, No. 21 (September 27, 1999), p. 2; and “Europipe II Commissioned 1 October,” Financial Times: Gas Markets Week, No. 22 (October 4, 1999), p. 12. 

9. “New Leg of Yamal-Europe Gas Pipeline Constructed,” Itar-Tass News Wire (September 28, 1999). 

10. “Ruhrgas Starts on New Gasline,” Financial Times: International Gas Report, Vol. 383 (October 1, 1999), p. 14. 

11. “EU TotalFina/Elf Probe Targets LPG,” Financial Times: International Gas Report, Vol. 384 (October 15, 1999), p. 3. 

12. “Veba-Viag Seal Major Merger,” Financial Times: International Gas Report, Vol. 383 (October 1, 1999), p. 7. 

13. “Italy’s Eni Seals $5.5 Billion Libya Gas Deal,” Financial Times: International Gas Report, Vol. 379-380 (August 6, 1999), pp. 1-2. 

14. “Edison-Mobil Italy LNG Plan ‘Moves Ahead’,” Financial Times: International Gas Report, Vol. 382 (September 17, 1999), p. 3. 

15. “Gas Demand ‘Set To Double’,” Financial Times: International Gas Report, Vol. 384 (October 15, 1999), p. 15. 

16. “Gas/Power Sectors Open Up,” Financial Times: International Gas Report, Vol. 383 (October 1, 1999), p. 10. 

17. British Petroleum Company, BP Amoco Statistical Review of World Energy 1999 (London, UK, June 1999), web site naturalgas. 

18. “Uzbekistan Threatens To Cut Gas Supplies to Kyrgyzstan,” Slovo Kyrgyzstana (November 11, 1999. 

19. “World Briefing,” ITAR-TASS News Agency Release (December 14, 1999). 

20. “Belarus Government Compels Domestic Customers To Pay Off Gas Debts,” Belapan News Agency (December 9, 1999). 

21. Energy Information Administration, Country Analysis Briefs: Ukraine, web site emeu/cabs/ukraine.html (June 1999). 

22. D. Hoffman, “Russia Gets Planes Left in Ukraine; Natural Gas Debt Traded for Strategic Bombers,” International Herald Tribune (November 2, 1999), p. 10. 

23. “Ukraine Pays Off Part of Debt to Turkmenistan,” Intelnews Agency (October 12, 1999). 

24. “Itera Threatens To Stop Gas Supply to Ukraine,” Russian Oil and Gas Report (September 29, 1999). 

25. “Gazprom To Open Gas Pipeline,” Hart’s Offshore Petroleum Newsletter, Vol. 24, No. 37 (September 21, 1999). 

26. “Gazprom To Eventually Reduce Gas Exports Through Ukraine,” Interfax News Agency (December 3, 1999). 

27. “Turkish Energy Minister Visits Turkmenistan, Discusses Purchase of Gas,” Anatolia News Agency (October 9, 1999). 

28. “Afghan Taleban Official in Odessa for Talks on Gas Supplies,” Intelnews News Agency (September 17, 1999). 

29. “Ukraine Hoping To Buy Fuel From Kazakhstan,” Intelnews News Agency (September 16, 1999). 

30. “Poland Signs Gas Supply Contract With Norway,” Gazeta Wyborcza, December 12, 1999, p. 25; Rzeczpospolita, December 12, 1999, p. B1, from Polish News Bulletin. 

31. “Atlantic LNG Launched, But Expansion Accord Still Pending,” World Gas Intelligence, Vol. 10, No. 8 (April 29, 1999), p. 2. 

32. “T&T Minister Flags Gas Sector Tax Hike,” Financial Times: International Gas Report, Vol. 384 (October 15, 1999), p. 2; and “Caribbean: Atlantic LNG Expansion Moves Nearer,” Latin America Monitor, Vol. 16, No. 9 (September 1999), p. 7. 

33. “Bolivia-Brazil Pipeline Opens,” Latin American Energy Alert, Vol. 6, No. 17 (July 22, 1999), p. 10; and “Bust in Brazilian Gas Purchases May Prompt Bolivia To Allow Flaring,” Latin American Energy Alert, Vol. 6, No. 23 (October 21, 1999). 

34. “OPIC Approves Gas Pipeline Loan,” Latin American Energy Alert, Vol. 6, No. 16 (July 5, 1999), p. 8. 

35. “Ground Broken for TGM Pipe,” Financial Times: Power in Latin America, No. 50 (August 1999), p. 13; and “Construction of TGM Pipeline From Argentina to Brazil,” NewsPage, web site www. (August 3, 1999). 

36. “Government Fixes Gas Price,” Financial Times: International Gas Report, Vol. 383 (October 1, 1999), pp. 35-36. 

37. “First GasAtacama Gas Flows,” Financial Times: International Gas Report, Vol. 377 (July 9, 1999), p. 30; “Gas Atacama Opens But Glutted Region May Be Soft Market,” Latin American Energy Alert, Vol. 6, No. 17, p. 5; “GasAtacama Starts Pumping,” Financial Times: Power in Latin America, No. 49 (July 1999), p. 13; and “CMS, Endesa Plan To Build Spur Off Gas Atacama Pipeline,” Latin American Energy Alert, Vol. 6, No. 19 (August 25, 1999), p. 7. 

38. “Ecopetrol To Support Plan To Build Gas Pipeline into Central America,” Latin American Energy Alert, Vol. 6, No. 18 (August 5, 1999), p. 8. 

39. “Enron Eyes Colombia Gas for Panama,” Financial Times: International Gas Report, Vol. 384 (October 15, 1999), p. 5. 

40. “Peru Sets Dates for Camisea Sale,” The Oil Daily, Vol. 49, No. 152 (August 10, 1999), p. 8; and “New Knock for Camisea Hopes,” Financial Times: International Gas Report, Vol. 383 (October 1, 1999), p. 34. 

41. R. Colitt, “New President for PDVSA,” Financial Times London, U.S. Edition (September 1, 1999), p. 17. 

42. “PDVSA Adopts New Management Structure, Fills Vacancies,” Latin American Energy Alert, Vol. 6, No. 23 (October 21, 1999), p. 5. 

43. “Japanese LNG Buyers To Extend Contracts,” The Jakarta Post (September 10, 1999). 

44. “Gas Discovery Off Australia Termed ‘Very Significant’,” The Houston Chronicle (October 3, 1999). 

45. S. Wyatt, “Demand Grows for Gas Pipeline,” Financial Times London (July 30, 1999), p. 30. 

46. “Independent Audits Say McDermott Pipe Deal Okay,” Reuters (October 11, 1999). 

47. “Gas Deal Boosts New Line Plan,” Financial Times: International Gas Report, Vol. 383 (October 1, 1999), pp. 26-27; International Herald Tribune (September 22, 1999); and “Jakarta Signs Singapore Deal But Brushes Reform Bill Aside,” World Gas Intelligence, Vol. 10, No. 18 (September 30 1999), p. 1. 

48. “Japanese LNG Buyers To Extend Contracts,” The Jakarta Post (September 10, 1999). 

49. “Government To Lower Gas Prices for Domestic Market,” The Jakarta Post (September 28, 1999), p. 1. 

50. “New Delay to Yadana Gas Field Supply,” Financial Times: Power in Asia, Vol. 283-284 (August 9, 1999), pp. 1-2; and “New Thai Delay Hits Burma Gas Output,” Financial Times: International Gas Report, Vol. 379-380 (August 6, 1999), pp. 2-3. 

51. “Thai State Firms Clash Over Gas,” Financial Times International Gas Report, No. 383 (October 1, 1999), p. 6. 

52. “Thailand Endorses Spending on Pipeline To Also Serve Malaysia,” Asian Wall Street Journal (September 15, 1999), p. 4. 

53. Cedigaz News Report, No. 36 (September 10, 1999). 

54. “Malay-Thai $1 bn Project Set for Lift Off,” Financial Times: International Gas Report, Vol. 382 (September 17, 1999), p. 1. 

55. “Malaysia Signed 8 New PSCs in Past Year,” web site 041399malay.html (October 1999). 

56. “Malaysia LNG Tiga Plant Set To Feed India,” Financial Times International Gas Report,” Vol. 378 (July 23, 1999), pp. 1-2. 

57. “Electric Power, Dabhol II: ‘Slow and Steady’ Wins the Race,” Asian Energy Insights (Canbrdige, MA: Cambridge Energy Research Associates, July 1999), pp. 9-10. 

58. “On the Asia Beat: India,” Financial Times: Power in Asia, Vol. 283-284 (August 9, 1999), p. 29. 

59. “NTPC Takes Stake in Pipavav LNG Project,” Financial Times: International Gas Report, Vol. 383 (October 1, 1999), p. 3. 

60. Cedigaz News Report, No. 36 (September 10, 1999). 

61. “China Moves to Oz Deal?” Financial Times: International Gas Report, No. 379-380 (August 6, 1999), pp. 23-4; and Lloyd’s List London (October 1, 1999). 

62. “Shell Inks $3bn China Gas/Power Deal,” Financial Times: International Gas Report, Vol. 383 (October 1, 1999), p. 5. 

63. “KOGAS To Spin Off, Sell Importing, Wholesale Units,” Korea Herald (October 1, 1999). 

64. T. Gustafson, “The Gas Race For Turkey—Can Blue Stream Win?” (Cambridge, MA: Cambridge Energy Research Associates, June 1999). 

65. “Elf, Enron, Mobil ‘Front Runners’ for Dolphin Gas Venture in UAE,” AFX News (September 13, 1999). 

66. “What’s New Around the World,” World Gas Intelligence, Vol. 10, No. 7 (April 16, 1999), p. 12. 

67. “Mobil Announces First RasGas LNG Shipment to Korea,” Business Wire (August 23, 1999). 

68. “El Paso Confirms Interest,” Financial Times: International Gas Report, Vol. 384 (October 15, 1999), p. 20. 

69. “Egypt Warns Israel Against Crossing Border in Exploring Gas,” Al-Sharq al-Awsat (September 16, 1999). 

70. “Syria and Lebanon Finalise Plans for Gas Pipeline,” Agence France-Presse (October 26, 1999). 

71. Standard & Poor’s Platt’s, World Energy Service: Africa/Middle East (Lexington, MA, 1999), pp. 223-224. 

72. Standard & Poor’s Platt’s, World Energy Service: Africa/Middle East (Lexington, MA, 1999), pp. 9-10. 

73. “New Setback Hits Nigerian LNG,” Financial Times: International Gas Report, Vol. 383 (October 1, 1999), p. 23.  

74. “Shell Unit Announces Nigeria LNG Train Expansion,” AFX News (March 15, 1999), p. 1.  

75. “Pipeline Projects Reflect Two Kinds of Potential,” Africa News Service (September 7, 1999).  

76. “What’s New Around the World,” World Gas Intelligence, Vol. 10, No. 3 (February 12, 1999), p. 11.  

77. “Offshore Fields Move Ahead,” Financial Times: International Gas Report, Vol. 384 (October 15, 1999), p. 20.  

78. “BP Amoco, Eni in Egypt Gas Deal,” Financial Times London (September 27, 1999).  

79. “EIB Funds Egypt Gasline,” Financial Times: International Gas Report, Vol. 383 (October 1, 1999), p. 24. 

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