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Workers dye yarns at a traditional hand-dying workshop in the Egyptian capital Cairo's centuries old district of Darb al-Ahmar on January 21, 2020. In Cairo's centuries-old Darb al-Ahmar district, Salama Mahmoud Salama's dye workshop is a multi-coloured den of textiles and busy workers colouring all kinds of fabrics. Khaled DESOUKI / AFP

Workers dye yarns at a traditional hand-dying workshop in the Egyptian capital Cairo's centuries old district of Darb al-Ahmar on January 21, 2020. In Cairo's centuries-old Darb al-Ahmar district, Salama Mahmoud Salama's dye workshop is a multi-coloured den of textiles and busy workers colouring all kinds of fabrics. Khaled DESOUKI / AFP

Salama and his relatives lay out the long, flowing threads, which will be used for everything from handmade shoes to rugs and drapes, and dip them in huge, piping-hot colour baths -- no gloves or masks protecting them from the dyes and chemical fumes. The workshop in Islamic Cairo has been going strong for over a hundred years. Khaled DESOUKI / AFP

Salama and his relatives lay out the long, flowing threads, which will be used for everything from handmade shoes to rugs and drapes, and dip them in huge, piping-hot colour baths -- no gloves or masks protecting them from the dyes and chemical fumes. The workshop in Islamic Cairo has been going strong for over a hundred years. Khaled DESOUKI / AFP

A worker carries undyed yarns to be processed at a traditional hand-dying workshop in the Egyptian capital Cairo's centuries old district of Darb al-Ahmar on January 21, 2020. Khaled DESOUKI / AFP

A worker carries undyed yarns to be processed at a traditional hand-dying workshop in the Egyptian capital Cairo's centuries old district of Darb al-Ahmar on January 21, 2020. Khaled DESOUKI / AFP

The workshop in Islamic Cairo has been going strong for over a hundred years. Khaled DESOUKI / AFP

The workshop in Islamic Cairo has been going strong for over a hundred years. Khaled DESOUKI / AFP

Workers dye yarns in a vat at a traditional hand-dying workshop in the Egyptian capital Cairo's centuries old district of Darb al-Ahmar on January 21, 2020. In Cairo's centuries-old Darb al-Ahmar district, Salama Mahmoud Salama's dye workshop is a multi-coloured den of textiles and busy workers colouring all kinds of fabrics. Khaled DESOUKI / AFP

Workers dye yarns in a vat at a traditional hand-dying workshop in the Egyptian capital Cairo's centuries old district of Darb al-Ahmar on January 21, 2020. In Cairo's centuries-old Darb al-Ahmar district, Salama Mahmoud Salama's dye workshop is a multi-coloured den of textiles and busy workers colouring all kinds of fabrics. Khaled DESOUKI / AFP

Mohamed Kamal, a 59-year-old dye worker, prepares to hang dyed yarns out to dry in the sun at a traditional hand-dying workshop in the Egyptian capital Cairo's centuries old district of Darb al-Ahmar on January 21, 2020. In Cairo's centuries-old Darb al-Ahmar district, Salama Mahmoud Salama's dye workshop is a multi-coloured den of textiles and busy workers colouring all kinds of fabrics. Khaled DESOUKI / AFP

Mohamed Kamal, a 59-year-old dye worker, prepares to hang dyed yarns out to dry in the sun at a traditional hand-dying workshop in the Egyptian capital Cairo's centuries old district of Darb al-Ahmar on January 21, 2020. In Cairo's centuries-old Darb al-Ahmar district, Salama Mahmoud Salama's dye workshop is a multi-coloured den of textiles and busy workers colouring all kinds of fabrics. Khaled DESOUKI / AFP

Salama and his relatives lay out the long, flowing threads, which will be used for everything from handmade shoes to rugs and drapes, and dip them in huge, piping-hot colour baths -- no gloves or masks protecting them from the dyes and chemical fumes. The workshop in Islamic Cairo has been going strong for over a hundred years. Khaled DESOUKI / AFP

Salama and his relatives lay out the long, flowing threads, which will be used for everything from handmade shoes to rugs and drapes, and dip them in huge, piping-hot colour baths -- no gloves or masks protecting them from the dyes and chemical fumes. The workshop in Islamic Cairo has been going strong for over a hundred years. Khaled DESOUKI / AFP

Mohamed Kamal, a 59-year-old dye worker, hangs dyed yarns out to dry in the sun at a traditional hand-dying workshop in the Egyptian capital Cairo's centuries old district of Darb al-Ahmar on January 21, 2020. Khaled DESOUKI / AFP

Mohamed Kamal, a 59-year-old dye worker, hangs dyed yarns out to dry in the sun at a traditional hand-dying workshop in the Egyptian capital Cairo's centuries old district of Darb al-Ahmar on January 21, 2020. Khaled DESOUKI / AFP

Salama and his relatives lay out the long, flowing threads, which will be used for everything from handmade shoes to rugs and drapes, and dip them in huge, piping-hot colour baths -- no gloves or masks protecting them from the dyes and chemical fumes. The workshop in Islamic Cairo has been going strong for over a hundred years. Khaled DESOUKI / AFP

Salama and his relatives lay out the long, flowing threads, which will be used for everything from handmade shoes to rugs and drapes, and dip them in huge, piping-hot colour baths -- no gloves or masks protecting them from the dyes and chemical fumes. The workshop in Islamic Cairo has been going strong for over a hundred years. Khaled DESOUKI / AFP

Workers dye yarns at a traditional hand-dying workshop in the Egyptian capital Cairo's centuries old district of Darb al-Ahmar on January 21, 2020. In Cairo's centuries-old Darb al-Ahmar district, Salama Mahmoud Salama's dye workshop is a multi-coloured den of textiles and busy workers colouring all kinds of fabrics. Khaled DESOUKI / AFP
Salama and his relatives lay out the long, flowing threads, which will be used for everything from handmade shoes to rugs and drapes, and dip them in huge, piping-hot colour baths -- no gloves or masks protecting them from the dyes and chemical fumes. The workshop in Islamic Cairo has been going strong for over a hundred years. Khaled DESOUKI / AFP
A worker carries undyed yarns to be processed at a traditional hand-dying workshop in the Egyptian capital Cairo's centuries old district of Darb al-Ahmar on January 21, 2020. Khaled DESOUKI / AFP
The workshop in Islamic Cairo has been going strong for over a hundred years. Khaled DESOUKI / AFP
Workers dye yarns in a vat at a traditional hand-dying workshop in the Egyptian capital Cairo's centuries old district of Darb al-Ahmar on January 21, 2020. In Cairo's centuries-old Darb al-Ahmar district, Salama Mahmoud Salama's dye workshop is a multi-coloured den of textiles and busy workers colouring all kinds of fabrics. Khaled DESOUKI / AFP
Mohamed Kamal, a 59-year-old dye worker, prepares to hang dyed yarns out to dry in the sun at a traditional hand-dying workshop in the Egyptian capital Cairo's centuries old district of Darb al-Ahmar on January 21, 2020. In Cairo's centuries-old Darb al-Ahmar district, Salama Mahmoud Salama's dye workshop is a multi-coloured den of textiles and busy workers colouring all kinds of fabrics. Khaled DESOUKI / AFP
Salama and his relatives lay out the long, flowing threads, which will be used for everything from handmade shoes to rugs and drapes, and dip them in huge, piping-hot colour baths -- no gloves or masks protecting them from the dyes and chemical fumes. The workshop in Islamic Cairo has been going strong for over a hundred years. Khaled DESOUKI / AFP
Mohamed Kamal, a 59-year-old dye worker, hangs dyed yarns out to dry in the sun at a traditional hand-dying workshop in the Egyptian capital Cairo's centuries old district of Darb al-Ahmar on January 21, 2020. Khaled DESOUKI / AFP
Salama and his relatives lay out the long, flowing threads, which will be used for everything from handmade shoes to rugs and drapes, and dip them in huge, piping-hot colour baths -- no gloves or masks protecting them from the dyes and chemical fumes. The workshop in Islamic Cairo has been going strong for over a hundred years. Khaled DESOUKI / AFP
Children are tought to use weapons by the Regional Coordinator of Community Authorities (CRAC-PF) community police force at a basketball court in the village of Ayahualtempan, Guerrero State, Mexico, on January 24, 2020. The CRAC-PF vigilante group trains children as young as five so they can protect themselves from drug-related criminal groups operating in the area. Pedro PARDO / AFP

Children are tought to use weapons by the Regional Coordinator of Community Authorities (CRAC-PF) community police force at a basketball court in the village of Ayahualtempan, Guerrero State, Mexico, on January 24, 2020. The CRAC-PF vigilante group trains children as young as five so they can protect themselves from drug-related criminal groups operating in the area. Pedro PARDO / AFP

A boy aims a gun as the Regional Coordinator of Community Authorities (CRAC-PF) community police force teaches a group of children how to use weapons, at a basketball court in the village of Ayahualtempan, Guerrero State, Mexico, on January 24, 2020. The CRAC-PF vigilante group trains children as young as five so they can protect themselves from drug-related criminal groups operating in the area. Pedro PARDO / AFP

A boy aims a gun as the Regional Coordinator of Community Authorities (CRAC-PF) community police force teaches a group of children how to use weapons, at a basketball court in the village of Ayahualtempan, Guerrero State, Mexico, on January 24, 2020. The CRAC-PF vigilante group trains children as young as five so they can protect themselves from drug-related criminal groups operating in the area. Pedro PARDO / AFP

Children line up as thay are tought to use weapons by the Regional Coordinator of Community Authorities (CRAC-PF) community police force at a basketball court in the village of Ayahualtempan, Guerrero State, Mexico, on January 24, 2020. The CRAC-PF vigilante group trains children as young as five so they can protect themselves from drug-related criminal groups operating in the area. Pedro PARDO / AFP

Children line up as thay are tought to use weapons by the Regional Coordinator of Community Authorities (CRAC-PF) community police force at a basketball court in the village of Ayahualtempan, Guerrero State, Mexico, on January 24, 2020. The CRAC-PF vigilante group trains children as young as five so they can protect themselves from drug-related criminal groups operating in the area. Pedro PARDO / AFP

Children play basketball during a break as they are tought to use weapons by the Regional Coordinator of Community Authorities (CRAC-PF) community police force at a basketball court in the village of Ayahualtempan, Guerrero State, Mexico, on January 24, 2020. The CRAC-PF vigilante group trains children as young as five so they can protect themselves from drug-related criminal groups operating in the area. Pedro PARDO / AFP

Children play basketball during a break as they are tought to use weapons by the Regional Coordinator of Community Authorities (CRAC-PF) community police force at a basketball court in the village of Ayahualtempan, Guerrero State, Mexico, on January 24, 2020. The CRAC-PF vigilante group trains children as young as five so they can protect themselves from drug-related criminal groups operating in the area. Pedro PARDO / AFP

A boy looks on as he holds a gun as the Regional Coordinator of Community Authorities (CRAC-PF) community police force teaches a group of children how to use weapons, at a basketball court in the village of Ayahualtempan, Guerrero State, Mexico, on January 24, 2020. The CRAC-PF vigilante group trains children as young as five so they can protect themselves from drug-related criminal groups operating in the area. AFP

A boy looks on as he holds a gun as the Regional Coordinator of Community Authorities (CRAC-PF) community police force teaches a group of children how to use weapons, at a basketball court in the village of Ayahualtempan, Guerrero State, Mexico, on January 24, 2020. The CRAC-PF vigilante group trains children as young as five so they can protect themselves from drug-related criminal groups operating in the area. AFP

Children are tought to use weapons by the Regional Coordinator of Community Authorities (CRAC-PF) community police force at a basketball court in the village of Ayahualtempan, Guerrero State, Mexico, on January 24, 2020. The CRAC-PF vigilante group trains children as young as five so they can protect themselves from drug-related criminal groups operating in the area. Pedro PARDO / AFP

Children are tought to use weapons by the Regional Coordinator of Community Authorities (CRAC-PF) community police force at a basketball court in the village of Ayahualtempan, Guerrero State, Mexico, on January 24, 2020. The CRAC-PF vigilante group trains children as young as five so they can protect themselves from drug-related criminal groups operating in the area. Pedro PARDO / AFP

Members of the Regional Coordinator of Community Authorities (CRAC-PF) community police force patrol the village of Ayahualtempan, Guerrero State, Mexico, on January 24, 2020. The CRAC-PF vigilante group trains children as young as five so they can protect themselves from drug-related criminal groups operating in the area. Pedro PARDO / AFP

Members of the Regional Coordinator of Community Authorities (CRAC-PF) community police force patrol the village of Ayahualtempan, Guerrero State, Mexico, on January 24, 2020. The CRAC-PF vigilante group trains children as young as five so they can protect themselves from drug-related criminal groups operating in the area. Pedro PARDO / AFP

View of a classroom at an abandoned school in the village of El Paraiso de Tepila, Guerrero State, Mexico, on January 24, 2020. The Regional Coordinator of Community Authorities (CRAC-PF) vigilante group trains children as young as five near El Paraiso de Tepila so they can protect themselves from drug-related criminal groups operating in the area. Pedro PARDO / AFP

View of a classroom at an abandoned school in the village of El Paraiso de Tepila, Guerrero State, Mexico, on January 24, 2020. The Regional Coordinator of Community Authorities (CRAC-PF) vigilante group trains children as young as five near El Paraiso de Tepila so they can protect themselves from drug-related criminal groups operating in the area. Pedro PARDO / AFP

A boy aims a rifle as the Regional Coordinator of Community Authorities (CRAC-PF) community police force teaches a group of children how to use weapons, at a basketball court in the village of Ayahualtempan, Guerrero State, Mexico, on January 24, 2020. The CRAC-PF vigilante group trains children as young as five so they can protect themselves from drug-related criminal groups operating in the area. Pedro PARDO / AFP

A boy aims a rifle as the Regional Coordinator of Community Authorities (CRAC-PF) community police force teaches a group of children how to use weapons, at a basketball court in the village of Ayahualtempan, Guerrero State, Mexico, on January 24, 2020. The CRAC-PF vigilante group trains children as young as five so they can protect themselves from drug-related criminal groups operating in the area. Pedro PARDO / AFP

The CRAC-PF vigilante group trains children as young as five so they can protect themselves from drug-related criminal groups operating in the area. Pedro PARDO / AFP

The CRAC-PF vigilante group trains children as young as five so they can protect themselves from drug-related criminal groups operating in the area. Pedro PARDO / AFP

Children are tought to use weapons by the Regional Coordinator of Community Authorities (CRAC-PF) community police force at a basketball court in the village of Ayahualtempan, Guerrero State, Mexico, on January 24, 2020. The CRAC-PF vigilante group trains children as young as five so they can protect themselves from drug-related criminal groups operating in the area. Pedro PARDO / AFP
A boy aims a gun as the Regional Coordinator of Community Authorities (CRAC-PF) community police force teaches a group of children how to use weapons, at a basketball court in the village of Ayahualtempan, Guerrero State, Mexico, on January 24, 2020. The CRAC-PF vigilante group trains children as young as five so they can protect themselves from drug-related criminal groups operating in the area. Pedro PARDO / AFP
Children line up as thay are tought to use weapons by the Regional Coordinator of Community Authorities (CRAC-PF) community police force at a basketball court in the village of Ayahualtempan, Guerrero State, Mexico, on January 24, 2020. The CRAC-PF vigilante group trains children as young as five so they can protect themselves from drug-related criminal groups operating in the area. Pedro PARDO / AFP
Children play basketball during a break as they are tought to use weapons by the Regional Coordinator of Community Authorities (CRAC-PF) community police force at a basketball court in the village of Ayahualtempan, Guerrero State, Mexico, on January 24, 2020. The CRAC-PF vigilante group trains children as young as five so they can protect themselves from drug-related criminal groups operating in the area. Pedro PARDO / AFP
A boy looks on as he holds a gun as the Regional Coordinator of Community Authorities (CRAC-PF) community police force teaches a group of children how to use weapons, at a basketball court in the village of Ayahualtempan, Guerrero State, Mexico, on January 24, 2020. The CRAC-PF vigilante group trains children as young as five so they can protect themselves from drug-related criminal groups operating in the area. AFP
Children are tought to use weapons by the Regional Coordinator of Community Authorities (CRAC-PF) community police force at a basketball court in the village of Ayahualtempan, Guerrero State, Mexico, on January 24, 2020. The CRAC-PF vigilante group trains children as young as five so they can protect themselves from drug-related criminal groups operating in the area. Pedro PARDO / AFP
Members of the Regional Coordinator of Community Authorities (CRAC-PF) community police force patrol the village of Ayahualtempan, Guerrero State, Mexico, on January 24, 2020. The CRAC-PF vigilante group trains children as young as five so they can protect themselves from drug-related criminal groups operating in the area. Pedro PARDO / AFP
View of a classroom at an abandoned school in the village of El Paraiso de Tepila, Guerrero State, Mexico, on January 24, 2020. The Regional Coordinator of Community Authorities (CRAC-PF) vigilante group trains children as young as five near El Paraiso de Tepila so they can protect themselves from drug-related criminal groups operating in the area. Pedro PARDO / AFP
A boy aims a rifle as the Regional Coordinator of Community Authorities (CRAC-PF) community police force teaches a group of children how to use weapons, at a basketball court in the village of Ayahualtempan, Guerrero State, Mexico, on January 24, 2020. The CRAC-PF vigilante group trains children as young as five so they can protect themselves from drug-related criminal groups operating in the area. Pedro PARDO / AFP
The CRAC-PF vigilante group trains children as young as five so they can protect themselves from drug-related criminal groups operating in the area. Pedro PARDO / AFP
A labourer carries a ripped-out tyre liner at a rubber recycling workshop in the village of Mit al-Harun in Egypt's central Nile delta Gharbia Governorate, about 70 kilometres (43 miles) north of the capital, on January 14, 2020. Khaled DESOUKI / AFP

A labourer carries a ripped-out tyre liner at a rubber recycling workshop in the village of Mit al-Harun in Egypt's central Nile delta Gharbia Governorate, about 70 kilometres (43 miles) north of the capital, on January 14, 2020. Khaled DESOUKI / AFP

Labourers transport stacked tyres at a rubber recycling workshop in the village of Mit al-Harun in Egypt's central Nile delta Gharbia Governorate, about 70 kilometres (43 miles) north of the capital, on January 14, 2020. Khaled DESOUKI / AFP

Labourers transport stacked tyres at a rubber recycling workshop in the village of Mit al-Harun in Egypt's central Nile delta Gharbia Governorate, about 70 kilometres (43 miles) north of the capital, on January 14, 2020. Khaled DESOUKI / AFP

The small village has become renowned as the country's rubber recycling hub. Khaled DESOUKI / AFP

The small village has become renowned as the country's rubber recycling hub. Khaled DESOUKI / AFP

A labourer deconstructs a tyre at a rubber recycling workshop in the village of Mit al-Harun in Egypt's central Nile delta Gharbia Governorate, about 70 kilometres (43 miles) north of the capital, on January 14, 2020. Khaled DESOUKI / AFP

A labourer deconstructs a tyre at a rubber recycling workshop in the village of Mit al-Harun in Egypt's central Nile delta Gharbia Governorate, about 70 kilometres (43 miles) north of the capital, on January 14, 2020. Khaled DESOUKI / AFP

Children stand before piles of tyres at a rubber recycling workshop in the village of Mit al-Harun in Egypt's central Nile delta Gharbia Governorate, about 70 kilometres (43 miles) north of the capital, on January 14, 2020. Khaled DESOUKI / AFP

Children stand before piles of tyres at a rubber recycling workshop in the village of Mit al-Harun in Egypt's central Nile delta Gharbia Governorate, about 70 kilometres (43 miles) north of the capital, on January 14, 2020. Khaled DESOUKI / AFP

Residents of Mit al-Harun have for decades eked out a living by recycling old tyres into new rubber-based products. From early morning, workers covered in soot and dust can be seen sharpening their knives to cut the huge tyres stockpiled on the village's roadsides. Khaled DESOUKI / AFP

Residents of Mit al-Harun have for decades eked out a living by recycling old tyres into new rubber-based products. From early morning, workers covered in soot and dust can be seen sharpening their knives to cut the huge tyres stockpiled on the village's roadsides. Khaled DESOUKI / AFP

With the material they extract, they make baskets, powder for landscaping and alternative fuels. The small village has become renowned as the country's rubber recycling hub. Khaled DESOUKI / AFP

With the material they extract, they make baskets, powder for landscaping and alternative fuels. The small village has become renowned as the country's rubber recycling hub. Khaled DESOUKI / AFP

Labourers create rubber baskets from recycled tyre components at a rubber recycling workshop in the village of Mit al-Harun in Egypt's central Nile delta Gharbia Governorate, about 70 kilometres (43 miles) north of the capital, on January 14, 2020. Khaled DESOUKI / AFP

Labourers create rubber baskets from recycled tyre components at a rubber recycling workshop in the village of Mit al-Harun in Egypt's central Nile delta Gharbia Governorate, about 70 kilometres (43 miles) north of the capital, on January 14, 2020. Khaled DESOUKI / AFP

A labourer carries a ripped-out tyre liner at a rubber recycling workshop in the village of Mit al-Harun in Egypt's central Nile delta Gharbia Governorate, about 70 kilometres (43 miles) north of the capital, on January 14, 2020. Khaled DESOUKI / AFP
Labourers transport stacked tyres at a rubber recycling workshop in the village of Mit al-Harun in Egypt's central Nile delta Gharbia Governorate, about 70 kilometres (43 miles) north of the capital, on January 14, 2020. Khaled DESOUKI / AFP
The small village has become renowned as the country's rubber recycling hub. Khaled DESOUKI / AFP
A labourer deconstructs a tyre at a rubber recycling workshop in the village of Mit al-Harun in Egypt's central Nile delta Gharbia Governorate, about 70 kilometres (43 miles) north of the capital, on January 14, 2020. Khaled DESOUKI / AFP
Children stand before piles of tyres at a rubber recycling workshop in the village of Mit al-Harun in Egypt's central Nile delta Gharbia Governorate, about 70 kilometres (43 miles) north of the capital, on January 14, 2020. Khaled DESOUKI / AFP
Residents of Mit al-Harun have for decades eked out a living by recycling old tyres into new rubber-based products. From early morning, workers covered in soot and dust can be seen sharpening their knives to cut the huge tyres stockpiled on the village's roadsides. Khaled DESOUKI / AFP
With the material they extract, they make baskets, powder for landscaping and alternative fuels. The small village has become renowned as the country's rubber recycling hub. Khaled DESOUKI / AFP
Labourers create rubber baskets from recycled tyre components at a rubber recycling workshop in the village of Mit al-Harun in Egypt's central Nile delta Gharbia Governorate, about 70 kilometres (43 miles) north of the capital, on January 14, 2020. Khaled DESOUKI / AFP
A gold miner works underground in Anka near Gusau, on December 4,2019. For generations, the mineral-rich earth of Nigeria's Zamfara state has provided families living here with a way to make ends meet. But in recent years their trade has become increasingly unsafe. The mines lie within the reach of heavily-armed groups -- dubbed "bandits" by the local authorities -- that have been terrorising this remote region.  Kola Sulaimon / AFP

A gold miner works underground in Anka near Gusau, on December 4,2019. For generations, the mineral-rich earth of Nigeria's Zamfara state has provided families living here with a way to make ends meet. But in recent years their trade has become increasingly unsafe. The mines lie within the reach of heavily-armed groups -- dubbed "bandits" by the local authorities -- that have been terrorising this remote region. Kola Sulaimon / AFP

Miners work at a mining site in Anka near Gusau, on December 4,2019. For generations, the mineral-rich earth of Nigeria's Zamfara state has provided families living here with a way to make ends meet. But in recent years their trade has become increasingly unsafe. The mines lie within the reach of heavily-armed groups -- dubbed "bandits" by the local authorities -- that have been terrorising this remote region.  Kola Sulaimon / AFP

Miners work at a mining site in Anka near Gusau, on December 4,2019. For generations, the mineral-rich earth of Nigeria's Zamfara state has provided families living here with a way to make ends meet. But in recent years their trade has become increasingly unsafe. The mines lie within the reach of heavily-armed groups -- dubbed "bandits" by the local authorities -- that have been terrorising this remote region. Kola Sulaimon / AFP

Ayuba Ahmad Muhammed, secretary of the Zamfara State Gold Buyers and Sellers, displays a mined mineral in Gusau, on December 5, 2019. For generations, the mineral-rich earth of Nigeria's Zamfara state has provided families living here with a way to make ends meet. Kola Sulaimon / AFP

Ayuba Ahmad Muhammed, secretary of the Zamfara State Gold Buyers and Sellers, displays a mined mineral in Gusau, on December 5, 2019. For generations, the mineral-rich earth of Nigeria's Zamfara state has provided families living here with a way to make ends meet. Kola Sulaimon / AFP

But in recent years their trade has become increasingly unsafe. The mines lie within the reach of heavily-armed groups -- dubbed "bandits" by the local authorities -- that have been terrorising this remote region.  Kola Sulaimon / AFP

But in recent years their trade has become increasingly unsafe. The mines lie within the reach of heavily-armed groups -- dubbed "bandits" by the local authorities -- that have been terrorising this remote region. Kola Sulaimon / AFP

Ayuba Ahmad Muhammed, secretary of the Zamfara State Gold Buyers and Sellers, displays a mined mineral in Gusau, on December 5, 2019. For generations, the mineral-rich earth of Nigeria's Zamfara state has provided families living here with a way to make ends meet. Kola Sulaimon / AFP

Ayuba Ahmad Muhammed, secretary of the Zamfara State Gold Buyers and Sellers, displays a mined mineral in Gusau, on December 5, 2019. For generations, the mineral-rich earth of Nigeria's Zamfara state has provided families living here with a way to make ends meet. Kola Sulaimon / AFP

A signpost is seen at a mining site in Anka near Gusau, on December 4,2019. For generations, the mineral-rich earth of Nigeria's Zamfara state has provided families living here with a way to make ends meet. Kola Sulaimon / AFP

A signpost is seen at a mining site in Anka near Gusau, on December 4,2019. For generations, the mineral-rich earth of Nigeria's Zamfara state has provided families living here with a way to make ends meet. Kola Sulaimon / AFP

A miner dumps rocks out of a platic container in Anka near Gusau, on December 4,2019. For generations, the mineral-rich earth of Nigeria's Zamfara state has provided families living here with a way to make ends meet. Kola Sulaimon / AFP

A miner dumps rocks out of a platic container in Anka near Gusau, on December 4,2019. For generations, the mineral-rich earth of Nigeria's Zamfara state has provided families living here with a way to make ends meet. Kola Sulaimon / AFP

A gold miner works underground in Anka near Gusau, on December 4,2019. For generations, the mineral-rich earth of Nigeria's Zamfara state has provided families living here with a way to make ends meet. But in recent years their trade has become increasingly unsafe. The mines lie within the reach of heavily-armed groups -- dubbed "bandits" by the local authorities -- that have been terrorising this remote region.  Kola Sulaimon / AFP
Miners work at a mining site in Anka near Gusau, on December 4,2019. For generations, the mineral-rich earth of Nigeria's Zamfara state has provided families living here with a way to make ends meet. But in recent years their trade has become increasingly unsafe. The mines lie within the reach of heavily-armed groups -- dubbed "bandits" by the local authorities -- that have been terrorising this remote region.  Kola Sulaimon / AFP
Ayuba Ahmad Muhammed, secretary of the Zamfara State Gold Buyers and Sellers, displays a mined mineral in Gusau, on December 5, 2019. For generations, the mineral-rich earth of Nigeria's Zamfara state has provided families living here with a way to make ends meet. Kola Sulaimon / AFP
But in recent years their trade has become increasingly unsafe. The mines lie within the reach of heavily-armed groups -- dubbed "bandits" by the local authorities -- that have been terrorising this remote region.  Kola Sulaimon / AFP
Ayuba Ahmad Muhammed, secretary of the Zamfara State Gold Buyers and Sellers, displays a mined mineral in Gusau, on December 5, 2019. For generations, the mineral-rich earth of Nigeria's Zamfara state has provided families living here with a way to make ends meet. Kola Sulaimon / AFP
A signpost is seen at a mining site in Anka near Gusau, on December 4,2019. For generations, the mineral-rich earth of Nigeria's Zamfara state has provided families living here with a way to make ends meet. Kola Sulaimon / AFP
A miner dumps rocks out of a platic container in Anka near Gusau, on December 4,2019. For generations, the mineral-rich earth of Nigeria's Zamfara state has provided families living here with a way to make ends meet. Kola Sulaimon / AFP
US President Donald Trump (R) shakes hands with Pakistani Prime Minister Imran Khan ahead of their meeting at the World Economic Forum in Davos, on January 21, 2020. JIM WATSON / AFP

US President Donald Trump (R) shakes hands with Pakistani Prime Minister Imran Khan ahead of their meeting at the World Economic Forum in Davos, on January 21, 2020. JIM WATSON / AFP

US Treasury Secretary Steven Mnuchin attends a session at the Congress center during the World Economic Forum (WEF) annual meeting in Davos, on January 21, 2020.  Fabrice COFFRINI / AFP

US Treasury Secretary Steven Mnuchin attends a session at the Congress center during the World Economic Forum (WEF) annual meeting in Davos, on January 21, 2020. Fabrice COFFRINI / AFP

Chinese Vice Premier Han Zheng delivers a speech at the Congress centre during the World Economic Forum (WEF) annual meeting in Davos, on January 21, 2020. Fabrice COFFRINI / AFP

Chinese Vice Premier Han Zheng delivers a speech at the Congress centre during the World Economic Forum (WEF) annual meeting in Davos, on January 21, 2020. Fabrice COFFRINI / AFP

In this file photo taken on January 21, 2019, policeman wearing camouflage clothing stands on the rooftop of a hotel, next to letters covered in snow reading 'Davos', near the Congress Centre ahead of the World Economic Forum (WEF) annual meeting in Davos, eastern Switzerland. The World Economic Forum 50th Annual Meeting in Davos is held from January 21 to 24, 2020. Fabrice COFFRINI / AFP

In this file photo taken on January 21, 2019, policeman wearing camouflage clothing stands on the rooftop of a hotel, next to letters covered in snow reading 'Davos', near the Congress Centre ahead of the World Economic Forum (WEF) annual meeting in Davos, eastern Switzerland. The World Economic Forum 50th Annual Meeting in Davos is held from January 21 to 24, 2020. Fabrice COFFRINI / AFP

Swedish climate activist Greta Thunberg attends a session at the Congres center during the World Economic Forum (WEF) annual meeting in Davos, on January 21, 2020.  Fabrice COFFRINI / AFP

Swedish climate activist Greta Thunberg attends a session at the Congres center during the World Economic Forum (WEF) annual meeting in Davos, on January 21, 2020. Fabrice COFFRINI / AFP

US president Donald Trump delivers a speech at the Congres center during the World Economic Forum (WEF) annual meeting in Davos, on January 21, 2020.  Fabrice COFFRINI / AFP

US president Donald Trump delivers a speech at the Congres center during the World Economic Forum (WEF) annual meeting in Davos, on January 21, 2020. Fabrice COFFRINI / AFP

A man dressed as Ronald McDonald, the clown character used as the primary mascot of the McDonald's fast-food restaurant chain, holds a placard as he takes part in a gathering called by climate activists prior to the start of a march to Davos ahead of the World Economic Forum in January 19, 2020 in Landquart. FABRICE COFFRINI / AFP

A man dressed as Ronald McDonald, the clown character used as the primary mascot of the McDonald's fast-food restaurant chain, holds a placard as he takes part in a gathering called by climate activists prior to the start of a march to Davos ahead of the World Economic Forum in January 19, 2020 in Landquart. FABRICE COFFRINI / AFP

President of the European Commission Ursula von der Leyen (R) is greeted by World Economic Forum (WEF) founder and executive chairman Klaus Schwab after delivering a speech marking the 50th anniversary of the World Economic Forum during the WEF's annual meeting in Davos, on January 20, 2020. Fabrice COFFRINI / AFP

President of the European Commission Ursula von der Leyen (R) is greeted by World Economic Forum (WEF) founder and executive chairman Klaus Schwab after delivering a speech marking the 50th anniversary of the World Economic Forum during the WEF's annual meeting in Davos, on January 20, 2020. Fabrice COFFRINI / AFP

A sign is seen inside the Congress center ahead of the annual meeting of the World Economic Forum (WEF) on January 20, 2020 in Davos. Fabrice COFFRINI / AFP

A sign is seen inside the Congress center ahead of the annual meeting of the World Economic Forum (WEF) on January 20, 2020 in Davos. Fabrice COFFRINI / AFP

US President Donald Trump (R) shakes hands with Pakistani Prime Minister Imran Khan ahead of their meeting at the World Economic Forum in Davos, on January 21, 2020. JIM WATSON / AFP
US Treasury Secretary Steven Mnuchin attends a session at the Congress center during the World Economic Forum (WEF) annual meeting in Davos, on January 21, 2020.  Fabrice COFFRINI / AFP
Chinese Vice Premier Han Zheng delivers a speech at the Congress centre during the World Economic Forum (WEF) annual meeting in Davos, on January 21, 2020. Fabrice COFFRINI / AFP
In this file photo taken on January 21, 2019, policeman wearing camouflage clothing stands on the rooftop of a hotel, next to letters covered in snow reading 'Davos', near the Congress Centre ahead of the World Economic Forum (WEF) annual meeting in Davos, eastern Switzerland. The World Economic Forum 50th Annual Meeting in Davos is held from January 21 to 24, 2020. Fabrice COFFRINI / AFP
Swedish climate activist Greta Thunberg attends a session at the Congres center during the World Economic Forum (WEF) annual meeting in Davos, on January 21, 2020.  Fabrice COFFRINI / AFP
US president Donald Trump delivers a speech at the Congres center during the World Economic Forum (WEF) annual meeting in Davos, on January 21, 2020.  Fabrice COFFRINI / AFP
A man dressed as Ronald McDonald, the clown character used as the primary mascot of the McDonald's fast-food restaurant chain, holds a placard as he takes part in a gathering called by climate activists prior to the start of a march to Davos ahead of the World Economic Forum in January 19, 2020 in Landquart. FABRICE COFFRINI / AFP
President of the European Commission Ursula von der Leyen (R) is greeted by World Economic Forum (WEF) founder and executive chairman Klaus Schwab after delivering a speech marking the 50th anniversary of the World Economic Forum during the WEF's annual meeting in Davos, on January 20, 2020. Fabrice COFFRINI / AFP
A sign is seen inside the Congress center ahead of the annual meeting of the World Economic Forum (WEF) on January 20, 2020 in Davos. Fabrice COFFRINI / AFP

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