The labels and warning messages are to "provide additional explanations or clarifications" in cases where the risks of harm associated with a tweet are not severe enough for it to be removed, "but where people may still be confused or misled by the content," the company said in a blog post, Deutsche press agency (dpa) reported.
"This will make it easier to find facts and make informed decisions about what people see," Twitter said.
The labels will link to a page curated by the company or an external trusted source containing information on the claims made within the tweet.
Warnings may also be added to inform users that a tweet conflicts with public health experts' guidance before they view it.
Twitter said it will decide on a case-by-case basis which posts to label, and will also apply the policy to past tweets.
The company launched similar labels for tweets containing deceptively manipulated media earlier this year.
Social media platforms have been under pressure to tackle virus-related misinformation, such as on bogus cures and conspiracy theories about where the outbreak originated.
Other tech giants, including Facebook and YouTube, have also adopted policies to confront such false claims on their sites.
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