A Russian-backed Syrian government offensive against the country's last rebel enclave has caused one of the biggest waves of displacement in the nine-year-old war.
Weeks of intensive aerial bombardment and a bruising ground offensive have emptied entire towns in the northwestern region of Idlib and sent huge numbers fleeing northwards, closer to the Turkish border.
The exodus, which coincides with a biting winter, is one of the largest since the start in 2011 of a conflict during which more than half of the country's pre-war population of 20 million has been displaced.
This latest displacement compounds an already dire humanitarian situation on the ground when over 400,000 people were displaced from the end of April through the end of August, many of them multiple times.
Turkey, which already hosts millions of Syrian refugees, is keen to stop another mass influx.