Several educational institutions in Pakistan give birth to extremism and radicalism, which eventually lead to terrorism.
And one such institution is Darul Uloom Haqqania seminary in Akora Khattak, about 60 kilometers east of Peshawar, which is dubbed as "university of jihad" by critics.
Despite its infamy in some quarters, it has enjoyed state support in Pakistan, where mainstream political parties are heavily boosted by links with religious factions.
Madrassas have long served as vital lifelines for millions of impoverished children in Pakistan and Afghanistan, where social services are chronically underfunded.
This month, Darul Uloom Haqqania's leaders boasted of backing the Taliban insurgency in Afghanistan in a video posted online -- outraging the Kabul government, which is battling a surge in violence across the county as the US prepares to withdraw troops.
Some Pakistani extremists who later attacked their own country have also been linked to the seminary, including the suicide bomber who assassinated former prime minister Benazir Bhutto.
However, Darul Uloom Haqqania's leaders dismissed notions the madrassa served as a "terrorist factory" where students received combat training or had a hand in militant groups' strategic decisions.