"It's the last straw for single-use plastic [and] polystyrene takeaway items," the state's Environment Ministry said on Twitter on Thursday, according to dpa.
The so-called sunshine state's parliament passed the bill on Wednesday night.
Other items including coffee cups and lids, other plastic cups and plastic balloon sticks will be considered for action in the future "after further consultation with Queenslanders," the state government said in the ban.
The World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) said that, with the ban, Queensland reclaimed the top spot in its "plastics scorecard" in Australia.
"Today's decision will finally stop some of the most polluting and lethal single-use plastics from entering Queensland’s beaches and waterways," WWF Australia's Katinka Day said in a Wednesday statement.
"We're pleased by the decision to include polystyrene cups and takeaway containers in the first tranche of plastics to be banned," she added.
Expanded polystyrene wasn't included in the original legislation but was added at a later date following a public consultation and calls from conservation organizations.
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